Psych 130 Week 3
Psych 130 Week 3 Psych 130
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fu on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 130 at University of California Berkeley taught by Sonia Bishop in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Clinical Psychology in Psychology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
LECTURE NOTES Lecture 4 Paradigms - Goal: study causes and treatment of psychiatric illness scientifically - A conceptual framework or approach to research from within which a scientist operates - Provides a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective on how to study the question in hand, how to gather and analyze data - Will influence what problems will be tackled and how they will be investigated; what factors will be focused upon Types of paradigms - Behavioral - Cognitive - Cognitive neuroscience - Basic neuroscience - Genetics Behavioral paradigm - Draws on behaviorism – the study of learning by focusing on observable behavior - Classical conditioning o Pavlov’s dogs § Bell rung before meat powder given to dog – after “pairing” dog salivates to ringing of bell § The meat powder (unconditioned stimulus) automatically elicits salivation (unconditioned response) § After pairing, bell (conditioned stimulus) elicits salivation (conditioned response) o Relevant to PTSD, phobias, panic order - Operant conditioning o Behavior (not stimulus) paired with positive/negative outcome o Positive reinforcement o Negative reinforcement o Shaping – reward a series of responses that more and more closely resemble desired response (child rearing) o Modeling – observational learning – watch other being rewarded for given behavior – can result in increased positive or negative behaviors (child of smokers growing up smoking) - Behavioral therapy o Emerged in 1950s o Applies procedure based on classical and operant conditioning to treat clinical problems o Systematic desensitization – based on classical conditioning § Graded exposure to feared stimuli/situation (CS) whilst in relaxed state – fear diminishes § Effectively creates new association between CS and the absence of danger/ feeling relaxed, so CS no longer generate fear response (CR) § Used to treat phobia § Used as component of CBT - Behavioral modification o Based on operant conditioning § Give rise to behavioral approaches to disorders first diagnosed in childhood (conduct disorder) – negative reinforcement § Positive reinforcement – used to help children with mental retardation, autism to develop certain skills/behaviors Cognitive Science - The scientific study of cognitive processes (attention, memory, reasoning) - One subfield is known as cognition and emotion – examines how cognitive processes and emotion interact - CBT – draws on both behavioral and cognitive approaches o Maladaptive schema may lead to cognitive biases – CBT’s goal is to give individuals experiences that will alter these schemas - Can use emotional stroop test to examine o Depressed participants will be slower to say the color of depressing words than non-depressing words - Experimental approach o Within-subject design § Experimental and control conditions are administered to the same person § Order of conditions needs to be randomized Cognitive Neuroscience - Similar to cognitive science + brain activity - fMRI - BOLD signal - PET - Frontal lobe support attention/ amygdala supports threat detection o Hypothesis: anxiety will be linked with a stronger amygdala response to emotional words - Neuroimaging limitations o More valuable at the group level than at the individual level – but mostly small sample sizes o People may trust it too much - Meta-analysis – integrate the results of different studies that address similar questions o Pros § enable integration of results from multiple studies § help to see if the effect is reliable and generalizable o Cons § only as valid and reliable as studies included in the meta-analysis § often studies don’t report null results, biasing overall picture Basic Neuroscience - key neurotransmitters implicated in psychopathology are o dopamine (prefrontal function and attention / striatal function and reward processing) o serotonin (amygdala function and emotional responsivity) o norepinephrine (arousal and stress response) o GABA (inhibitory – implicated in anxiety disorders) - Serotonin and dopamine implicated in depression, mania, schizophrenia - Norepinephrine and GABA in anxiety disorder - Psychopharmacology can be combined with neuroimaging to examine the influence of such agonists and antagonists on the function of different regions of the brain Genetics - Genes influence our environment, but equally environmental influences affect gene expression – this makes studying genetic and environmental influences upon brain function, cognition, or behavior difficult - 30,000 genes are carriers of the genetic information passed from parent to child - gene expression – genes make proteins which turn on or off other genes - polygenic contributions to vulnerability – multiple genes are thought to contribute to vulnerability to most psychiatric illnesses - heritability – extent to which variability in a given behavior in a population is due to genetic factors - shared environment factors – events and experiences that family members have in common - non-shared environment factors – events and experiences that are unique to each family member - genotype – individuals’ genetic makeup (inherited genetic material) - whole genome scan/sequencing – outputs the whole DNA sequence for a given individual - phenotype – observable behavior and characteristics – changes over time – depends on interaction of genotype and environment Behavioral genetics - the study of the degree to which genes and environmental factors influence behavior - family method – if the disorder is highly heritable then relatives of the patient should show higher rates of disorder - twin method Molecular genetics - studies the effects of specific polymorphisms or variants in particular genes - genetic polymorphism – a difference or variation in DNA sequence observed within the population - alleles – the different forms of a genes resulting from a given genetic polymorphism - polymorphisms – if impact DNA sequence of gene, itself can change proteins altering gene function - it can also alter gene expression through impacting promoter function (a region of DNA that facilitates gene transcription) - 5HTT-LPR polymorphism o individuals possess one or two copies of the short allele or the long allele o possession of one or more short alleles is associated with reduced 5HTT expression and increased anxiety symptoms - Knockout studies - specific gene taken out of mouse DNA - Association studies – examine the correlation between a specific allele of a given genetic polymorphism and a trait, behavior or diagnostic status in a given population o 5HTT-LPR and depression/ APOE-4 and Alzheimer’s - gene-environment interaction – occurs if participants’ responses to a specific environmental event are influenced by genetic factors o example: in short alleles carriers, maltreatment increased likelihood of depression; not true for long alleles carriers - epigenetics – study of how the environment can alter gene expression or function Lecture 5 Types of anxiety disorders - specific phobias - social anxiety disorder - panic disorder - agoraphobia – fear of places or situations that might cause panic, helplessness or embarrassment - generalized anxiety disorder Anxiety is the most common psychiatric disorders Criteria - symptoms interfere with important areas of functioning or cause marked distress - symptoms are not caused by a drug or a medical condition - symptoms persist for at least 6 months or at least 1 month for panic disorder - the fears and anxieties are distinct from the symptoms of another anxiety disorder Many anxiety disorders onset in late childhood/adolescence Women are at greater risk for developing anxiety disorders - possible factors o differences in beliefs (sense of control) o differences in reporting o interactions of genes and hormones o differential exposure to stressors High comorbidity with other ADs - may be due to o overlapping symptoms used to diagnose different ADs o common genetic and environmental risk factors o common neural and neurochemical substrate High comorbidity with other disorders - 60% with anxiety also have depression - substance abuse - personality disorders - medical disorders - agoraphobia has high comorbidity with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia - panic disorder has high comorbidity with depression, generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia Risk factors - genetic o twins/family with same but non-shared environmental risk factors can increase likelihood of different ADs o common to GAD, panic, agoraphobia, social phobia - environmental o especially panic disorder Disruption to neurotransmission - genetic influences and exposure to stressors could contribute to common neural substrate – amygdala hyper-responsivity and frontal hypo-responsivity Cognitive biases - attentional bias towards threat - negative interpretative biases - negative beliefs about the future Treatment - behavioral o exposure to feared object/situation until arousal levels go down § systematic desensitization § relaxation plus imaginal exposure o should include as many features of the trigger as possible o should be conducted in as many settings as possible - cognitive o challenge dysfunctional beliefs about likelihood of occurrence of feared events/outcomes - pharmacological o benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax) o serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) § for both anxiety and mood disorders o serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) o D-cycloserine (DCS) § Enhances learning and can bolster treatment effectiveness – but only if given at right time point relative to exposure to stressor and for right duration SECTION NOTES Section 2 Stigma as Related to Mental Disorder (Hinshaw & Stier) Currently, stigma carries a far more psychological connotation, referring to the majority’s tendencies to distance from and limit the rights of those in disparaged groups, the global nature of the aspersions cast, and the potential for internalization of such degraded status by those who are discredited (self-stigma) “the pain engendered by mental illness is searing enough, but the devastation of being invisible, shameful, and toxic can make the situation practically unbearable” –Hinshaw bringchange2mind.org – fighting stigmatization it’s a taboo against talking about mental illness in our society Activity: how to reduce stigma in each level: Individual/family - Educating the family members about mental illness - Listening to the family member who has mental illness, be more open-minded community - Employers should include people with mental illness in the workforce (equal opportunity) - Foster an inclusive environment School - Opportunities for integration nationally media (print, movie, TV etc.) Put a message/ disclaimer before the TV show clarifying characters with mental illness
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