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NTRI 2000 - Huggins - Week 2 Notes

by: Hayden Massey

NTRI 2000 - Huggins - Week 2 Notes ntri 2000

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Hayden Massey

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About this Document

Everything we covered in class and more in Huggins NTRI 2000 class
Dr. Kevin W Huggins
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayden Massey on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ntri 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Kevin W Huggins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Nutrition – Week 2 Huggins ▯ Calorie:  Measurement of energy  Calorie: The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degrees Celsius  1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie = 1 food Calorie ▯ ▯ Energy Yielding Nutrients:  Carbs: 4 Calories/gram  energy o How do we know that? Put a gram of food in an instrument where they set it on fire. The energy that is released will raise the temperature, and they calculate it from there  Fat: 9 Calories/gram  energy  Protein: 4 Calories/gram  energy  Alcohol: 7 Calories/gram  energy ▯ ▯ Total Energy Calculation:  Carbohydrate: 300 g x 4 C/g = 1200 C  Fat: 90 g x 9 C/g = 810 C  Protein: 123 g x 4 C/g = 492 C Total = 2502 C ▯ ▯ Typical American Diet:  Carbohydrate – 50% Recommended: 45–65%  Fat – 33% Recommended: 20–35%  Protein – 16 % Recommended: 10–35 %  Protein deficiency is rare in the US ▯ ▯ Energy Calculations  What portion of total energy is contributed by the various energy yielding nutrients? Carbohydrate: 290 g x 4 C/g = 1160 C Fat: 60 g x 9 C/g = 540 C Protein: 70 g x 4 C/g = 280 C Total = 1980 C Percent: Carbohydrates: 1160/1980 = 58.6% Fat: 540/1980 = 27.3% Protein: 280/1980 = 14.1% ▯ ▯ What makes you choose what you want to eat? ▯ What drives us to eat? Two Drives: o Hunger: physical, biological drive to eat o Appetite: psychological drive to eat  Stimulated by smells, sight, etc. ▯ ▯ Satiety: no longer a desire to eat; feeling of satisfaction  Controlled by hypothalamus  Meal Size and composition o Protein makes you feel more full, faster o Carbohydrates and sugars don’t keep you full for long  Hormones get released when we eat ▯ ▯ Food we eat/buy: why??  Convenience  Price  Who we are with  Where we grew up  Your upbringing/parents choices ▯ Chapter 2: Guidelines for Designing a Healthy Diet ▯ ▯ “Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food”  control how much you eat  Pay attention to what you eat  Stay physically active ▯ ▯ A Healthful Diet is Varied  Variety o Eating many different foods from within any given food group EX: proteins vs. fruits vs. vegetables Vegetables – not eating just broccoli because it does not have every nutrient, so eat a variety of vegetables, ie. Some red vegetables, some green  Balance (Proportionality) o Provides the correct proportion of nutrients and calories o Select foods from all of the food groups o Focus on nutrient dense foods EX: sweet potatoes Nutrient Density: focuses on nutrient content; amount of nutrients/calories in food Nutrient Dense = high # nutrients/ low # calories Low Nutrient Density  “Empty calories”  EX: soda  Moderation o Aka portion control o Don’t over consume on a specific nutrient  EX: sugars, fat, etc. Some fat is good, but not all and not a ton Saturated fat – animal products – limit it Cholesterol – affects some people and not others  Combination of sugar and saturated fat is what is causing problems  Vegan/vegetarian – they can have high blood cholesterol even though they are not eating meat  Adequacy o Provides enough of the energy, essential nutrients, and fiber ▯ ▯ Energy Density:  Comparison of Calorie content with weight of food  High Energy Density  Low Energy Density o EX: salad – you can eat a large amount of salad and still not reach the same amount of calories that you would if you ate a steak or some fish o Diets – eating a lot of low energy density food (aka low calorie) We tend to eat the same amount in terms of mass of food everyday. So if we eat low energy density food, were eating the same amount, but less calories ▯ ▯ Why do we have these dietary guidelines? ▯ ▯ Malnutrition  Any condition caused by a deficiency (undernutrition) or excess (overnutrition) of nutrient intake  Dietary guidelines are trying to prevent chronic disease in the US  1940’s: dietary guidelines tried to prevent undernutrition ▯ ▯ Recommendations for Healthy Eating:  Graphical representation-  Numbers – percent/measurements of nutrients  Food manufacturers are required by law to put it on labels ▯ ▯ The Dietary Guidelines for Americans:  Created to promote: o Optimal nutrient intakes and diet composition  Reduce the risk of chronic disease o Obesity epidemic, type 2 diabetes epidemic o EX: Focusing on low fat, low sugar  Intended for health children (> 2 years) and adults  Balancing Calories  Foods and food components to reduce o Sodium o Solid fats (saturated fat) and added sugars – SoFAS o Refined grains – ex: pasta, white bread All purpose flour!!! Benefits: helps thing rise Not the healthiest of choices Don’t make a cake with whole wheat flour  Foods and Nutrients to increase: o Fruits – however, limit some fruits (high in sugars) o Vegetables o Whole grains o Dairy o Lean meat/eggs o Nuts/plant oils 1992 – Food Guide Pyramid  Graphical representation of food guidelines  Base: carbohydrates – bread, cereal, rice  Next Level: fruits and veggies  Next Level: dairy and meats  Top: fats, oil, sweets  Gone now ▯ ▯ 2005 – MyPyramid  gone ▯ ▯ 2011 – MyPlate  “I’m not going to attempt to describe how much money they spent on this. This is there way of describing food guidelines. No one eats off of a pyramid, but they do eat off of a plate” – Teacher  Balance calories o Enjoy your food, but eat less o Avoid oversized proportions  Foods to Increase: o Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables o Make at least half of your grains whole o Switch to fat free or low fat milk (teacher does not agree)  Foods to Reduce: o Sodium o Drink water instead of sugary drinks


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