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Social Psychology

by: Bailey Anderson

Social Psychology PSY 270-001

Bailey Anderson

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These notes cover what we went over week 4: Monday and Wednesday before the exam.
psy orientation soc psy
Dr. Sheets
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Social Psychology Week 4 Notes Chapter 4 cont.  Why don’t “attitudes” predict behavior? o This assumes “attitudes” are first (causal o But if “attitudes” are part of larger system  No obvious reason affect/behavior o Imagine subjects come into the lab, sit down and they are given a peg board with  little wooden spools (48). They are told to turn each spool a quarter of a turn, do  all and then go back and turn each another quarter of a turn. They do this for 30  minutes. After the RA says “we are doing a study on how expectations lead to  feelings about something and you were part of the control group. The next RA  didn’t show up so will you play the RA for the next subject? The next subject  isn’t in the control group so we need the next subject to expect this to be fun. Can  you stay and relay this to the next subject?” Half were told they would be paid  $20, the other half were told they would be paid $1. They tell the next subject  how exciting the task is and then leave. On the way out, they see someone who  says they’re interested in experience in research. They asked how interesting and  exciting the study was.   Who would be most convinced that the study was exciting? ­ People paid  $1.   The people paid $1 had insufficient justification o Aronson & Mills study  Women invited to join a sex discussion group. 3 conditions: no initiation  (control) , mild initiation (had to read material in front of group) and  severe initiation (had to read in front of males). Mild and severs were told  they need to make sure the group will work so test you out and make sure  you can engage in discussion. They told them they needed to show how  the discussion group would work. They listened to a recording that made  sex as boring as it can be. After listening they are asked how excited they  are to be joining this group.  Who is most excited? ­ Severe because they had to work harder.  Their experience doesn’t match belief so they say that it is exciting because of the experience they had reading  Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger­genius)  People want harmony in attitudinal system  Discrepancies generate distressing arousal= dissonance  We must fit it­ if we can’t change behavior, then change attitude  Caveats: must be aware of discrepancy (especially in public), contr action must have been our choice  Modes of dissonance reduction  If behavior is unchangeable, change attitude  Change behavior to be consistent (if possible)­ Aronson  water reduction study: talk to people before they go to rec  and ask them about water reduction, second research  assistant gives survey to make them see hypocrisy in their  behaviors (said they care about water reduction but don’t  always do everything), third RA saw how long of showers  each person took. They ended up taking shorter showers if  they felt like hypocrites.   Add consonant elements/beliefs: when prophecy fails­the  seekers  Alcoholic drugs  Self­perception theory (D. Bem) o Likes “magic” and ESP o Dislikes “other people” o Ben said he had no self­insight; thinks when asked o We are often asked attitudes about things we haven’t thought about o To answer questions, we consider out actions. Thus, actions cause attitudes o Study: survey A­ “occasionally” (occasionally attend church) Survey B: “always”. Rated religiousness. People taking survey A rated themselves as more religious.  You answer based on your behavior  The man on the moon video o How does this relate to social psychology?  We need social interaction because we aren’t the same people without it.  Perspective: we were looking at things from his perspective and we didn’t  realize how small he was until the human stepped on him. We make  dispositional attributions.  Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment (on exam 2) o Don’t need to know details about study, just the big picture o Background:  Class project: social psychology of institutions  Prison group brought guest o Set up mock prison with help: 3, 6x9 cells in basement(cot, mattress, sheet,  pillow) o 24 Ss recruited from campus paid for 2 week study of prison life, none were  friends, all were tested for psychological health o Random assignment: half prisoners and half guards (12 and 12) o Set up:  Guards worked 8 hour shifts, do counts/roll call at beginning, maintain  order (4 guards for 12 people)  Write diary at end of shift  No physical aggression  Prisoners= picked up from home via PA police, fingerprinted, blindfolded  and brought to psych  Given uniform(smock, sandals, chain around 1 ankle, a number)  Remained in custody continuously  2 hrs for reading, 2 visiting periods per week, 3 toilet visits, 3  bland meals per day o Outcomes:  Started smoothly, rebellion in 24 hours­ leader excused in 36hrs and others punished  Prisoners: became passive and non­conforming, did less and less on own,  referred to selves by number, day 6 a mock parole hearing (asked to give  up pay to be let out­ they said yes) went back to cell  Guards: became demeaning and degrading, after rebellion they took sheets off of bed, locked one up for refusing to eat and made others tease him  about it o Stopped after 6 days due to Z’s girlfriend o 10yrs of follow­ups= no ill effects o What does this study teach us?­   The important of social rolls  Conformity­ conforming to the guard roll or the prisoner roll(refer by  number)  Power is corrupting? People can be cruel?  There is evidence that social power gives entitlement  Most important lesson: the power of the situation­ situations often come  with rules (expectations for how to act) that serve as powerful and even  overwhelming guides to behavior  Role determines behavior (& perspective/attributions)  Taking over independently of pacifistic identity o Why are such rules (roles) good?  Dispositions are a more limited factor than we expect. the situation is what overwhelmed them  Remove ambiguity of how to behave (actor)  Give perception of predictability/fairness(observer) real guards who  follow rules are seen as fair o Why are rules bad?  Potential for “dehumanization”  Rules impose an impersonal structure on relations


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