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Intro AT

by: McKenzie Jordan
McKenzie Jordan
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About this Document

Foot and Toe
Intro to Athletic Training
Mark Boatright
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Jordan on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1600 at Appalachian State University taught by Mark Boatright in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Athletic Training in Athletic Training at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 1 Anatomy → Rear Foot ● Calcaneus ­ heel bone ● Talus ­ Key stone to ankle → Mid Foot ● Navicular ­ in front of Talus ● Cuboid ­ outside ● 3 Cuneiforms ­ medial side, navicular tubercle  → Fore Foot ● 5 Metatarsals ● 14 phalangeals (phalanx) ● 5th Metatarsal Styloid process ● Sesamoids ** Big Toe/Great Toe (#1) ­ 2 joints **Rest of Toes (#2­5) ­ 5 joints Arches   1) Transverse ­ formed by metatarsals and tarsal bones, where midfoot joins forefoot a) Apex (highest point) 2nd Metatarsal ­ most fractured metatarsal in foot 2) Medial Longitudinal ­ Big Toe Side a) Navicular main body support b) Rear foot to mid foot 3) Lateral Longitudinal Arch ­ Little Toe side a) Most rigid (stiff) ­ static (doesn’t stretch well) tissue  Foot Joints 1) Subtalar Joint (Talocalcaneal (TC) Joint) ­ largest, movement a) Articulation between talus and calcaneus b) Movements: Pronation/ Supination, has one degree freedom of movement 2) Talocalcaneal Navicular Joint (TCN)  a) Articulation between talus, calcaneus, and navicular 3) Calcaneocuboid Joint (CC) a) Junction between the rearfoot and forefoot 4) Tarsometatarsal Joint ­ long bones and mid foot a) Junction between midfoot to forefoot b) Lisfranc Joint: 2nd and 3rd metatarsal dislocate from 1st and 3rd cuneiform  c) Five MTs from gliding articulations with bones to midfoot 5) Intermetatarsal Joints a) Formed by heads and bases of adjustment Mts Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 2 6) Metatarsophalangeal Joints a) Allow for flexion and extension of toes b) Limited abduction/adduction, slight rotation of toes 7) Interphalangeal (IP) Joint ­ PIP a) PIP: proximal inphalangeal joint b) DIP: distole inphalangeal joint, end of toe **Sinus Tarsi ­ hole in foot  Ligaments to Foot ~LATERAL SIDE~ 1) Bifurcated Ligament ­ calcaneus to cuboid; calcaneus to navicular (starts as on splints into 2...Y) 2) Anterior Talofibular (ATF) ­ most ankle sprains 3) Posterior Talofibular (PTF) 4) Calcaneofibular (CF) ­ fibular to heel bone ~MEDIAL SIDE~ 1) Spring Ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular ligament) 2) Long Plantar Ligament ­ heel bone to midfoot 3) Deltoid Ligament - 3 → posterior, middle, anterior Muscles to Foot 1) Exterior Digitorum Longus [flexion/extension of toes] 2) Exterior Digitorum Brevis [flexion/extension of toes] 3) Peroneus Tertius [gives support to midfoot] 4) Tibialis Anterior [dorsiflexion] 5) Tibialis Posterior [plantar flexion]  6) Peroneus Brevis [help prevent inversion] 7) Peroneus Longus [help prevent inversion] Neurological → Lateral Foot ● Sural Nerve → Dorsal (top) Foot ● Deep Superficial ● Peroneal Nerve → Medial Foot ● Saphenous → Plantar (bottom) Surface ● Lateral and Medial Plantar Nerve → Posterior ● Posterior Tibia Nerve Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 3 Vascular ­ Distole Pulses ● Posterior Tibial Artery ­ behind medial malleolus, top of foot ● Anterior Tibial Artery ­ blood to all four rays, toes #2­4 ● Dorsalis Pedis Artery ­ between 2nd and 3rd metatarsal, under ankle bone Foot History → Past Medical Conditions ● Gout: joint inflammation, too much uric acid, too much caffeine ● Diabetes: poor circulation, loss of feeling → Present Medical Conditions - acute, chronic, radial ● Location of Pain ● Retrocalcaneal Heel Pain (“Pump Bump”) ● Heel Pain  ● Medial Arch Pain ­ flat foot ● Metatarsal Pain ­ scar tissue on nerve, turf toe ●  Great Toe Pain ­ hallux valgus, hallux rigidus → Onset (acute vs. chronic) - What affects problems? ● Playing surface ● Distance and duration ● Shoes ­ brannock device   Inspection → Pes Plantas (flat foot) ● Hypermobile ● Rear Foot Valgus ­ outward to inward → Pes Cavus (high arch foot) ● Rigid Foot ● Rear Foot Varus ­ inward to outward ● Hypomobile  → Calluses - shoe fit, poor mechanics, hard thick layer sebaceous skin (chronic) → Blisters - increase friction in certain areas of foot, avulsion wound → Tinea Pedis - athlete's foot, fungus, too much moisture → Corns (Clavus) - thickening of stratum corneum with a central core, looks like hard pimple → Hard Corn (Hard, Heloma Dura) - toes and PIP → Soft Corn (wet/oozy, Heloma Molle) - between toes, 4th and 5th toes → Plantar Warts - Verruca Plantaris ~ Human Papilloma virus (HPV): from public bathrooms, pool decks, sand at beach Introduction to Athletic Training 1600 ­ 104 Mark Boatright 8/16/16 (McKenzie Jordan) Page 4 Toe Postures → Claw Toes - hyperextension of MTP joint and flexion of PIP joint → Hammertoes - hyperextension of MTP and DIP joints with flexion of PIP joints → Morton's Toe - 2nd toe extends past first toe → Hallux Valgus - 1st and 2nd toe overlap, big toe under second toe → Bunion - calcification of 1st metatarsal, on big toe → Bunionette - on little toe side → Hallux Rigidus - cannot bend toe


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