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Bio 1510- Module 1: Carbon Fixation

by: Sayali Punyarthi

Bio 1510- Module 1: Carbon Fixation BIOL 1510

Sayali Punyarthi

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These notes cover the Carbon Fixation section of Module 1. Majority of it covers the Calvin cycle and light dependent reactions.
Biological Principles
Jung Choi
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1510 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Jung Choi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles in Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Module 1: Molecules and Metabolism Carbon Fixation  Light-Dependent Reaction o Inside a chloroplasts (has two membranes and has granum (stacks))  Granum is made up of many thylakoids  Thylakoids are sight of “light-dependent reactions” o Lumen: space inside thylakoid  Thylakoid membrane is like normal membrane- has protein pumps such as ATP synthase o Two Photosystems: made up of multiple chlorophyll molecules  Photosystem II and then Photosystem I  Process:  1) Photon strikes chlorophyll molecule in thylakoid membrane in photosystem II- excites two electrons and gains energy  2) Electron moves from Photosystem II and through multiple protein complexes to Photosystem I o As the electrons move through the protein complexes in the electron transport chain, energy is lost- energy is used in pumping H+ ions (protons) across the membrane against the concentration gradient (active transport) inside the thylakoid. o Creates a high concentration of H+ ions in thylakoid: gives the inside a low pH  3) Electrons have to be replaced: 2 Water molecules are split into O2 and H+ ions: electrons go through Photosystem II and the ETC all over again and the H+ ions go to the proton gradient inside the thylakoid membrane. o Oxygen diffuses out of the thylakoid and could go to the mitochondria for respiration or could leave the plant o Six O2 are produced for ever one molecule of glucose o PHOTOLYSIS: splitting of water in thylakoid membrane in Photosystem II o Build up high concentration of H+ ions in thylakoid  4) H+ ions diffuse (high concentration from inside of thylakoid to low concentration in stroma (space outside the thylakoid- “cytoplasm of the chloroplast”)) through ATP synthase : creates ATP o Converts ADP and phosphate ion (+Pi) into ATP- The H+ ions just move out of the enzyme- don’t actually attach to ADP.  5) ATP goes to Calvin Cycle.  6) Electrons in Photosystem I are excited again by a photon of light. Electrons are then transported by an enzyme to an electron carrier, NADP+- lose energy as the electron is moved to an electron carrier o NADP+: high electron carrier: also picks up H+ ion from outside thylakoid  Helps reduce the gradient outside the thylakoid in order to increase the gradient inside the thylakoid o Together, NADP+ and H+ ions create NADPH and is taken to the Calvin cycle as well  PRODUCED: 6O2, NADPH, ATP o O2 is released o NADPH and ATP are taken to the Calvin cycle  Second Part of Photosynthesis: Carbon Fixation  No such term as “dark reaction” or “light-independent reaction” because the reactions neither take place in the dark nor do not need light for a source of energy.  C3 photosynthesis: Calvin cycle, rubisco (very important enzyme) o Rubisco has a quaternary structure- 8 small subunit and 8 large subunits o Chloroplasts have its own ribosomes- makes the large subunit of rubisco in the chloroplasts- gets genome from chloroplasts  C4 photosynthesis: provides CO2 for Calvin cycle- gets around limitations with Rubisco  Process o ATP and NADPH produced in light reactions go to Calvin cycle in the chloroplast o Products of Calvin cycle makes sugar; sugar taken to mitochondria- makes ATP through respiration and provides energy for the cell o Calvin cycle uses up NADPH and ATP therefore return NADP+ and ADP to light reactions to continue the process- natural recycling  Biomass of Plants o 95% of a tree is carbon dioxide o Trees are mostly made out of air: the substance (CO2) we breathe out to lose mass is the substance (CO2) that the tree takes in to increase mass o Jan Baptiste van Helmont concluded that most of the biomass of a tree came from water as he conducted an experiment by growing a tree for five years without changing the soil and measuring the mass before and after. He was wrong. o Biomass of tree is mostly made up of carbohydrates that come from carbon dioxide o Only the H+ ions of water are actually constituted in the biomass of a tree  Calvin Cycle: Carbon Fixation  Happening in the inside of the chloroplasts outside the granum called the stroma  Chloroplasts have granum (stacks of thylakoid)  Produces sugars= used by plant to make other molecules  Process o 1) RuBP (5 carbon) (ribulose biphosphate) binds to carbon from CO2 molecule from the environment through the RUBISCO enzyme  Plants have to use tones of RUBISCO because it is slow= therefore most common protein- because need so much of it  Rubisco traps CO2 and binds it to RuBP  RuBP + C in CO2 become 6-C sugar which then splits into two 3-C sugars (3PG) o 2) RuBP + C  6 C sugar  two 3 C sugars (3PG) o 3) 3PG is converted into G3P (different molecule) (3 C sugar as well)  Uses ATP (from light dependent reaction)- produces ADP (process = phosphorylation)  ADP goes back to light dependent reactions to recycle  Uses electron from NADPH (from light dependent reaction) and converts NADPH to NADP+  NADPH goes back to light dependent reactions to recycle o 4) Two G3P can be converted into 6C glucose (to make sugar) o 5) Series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that occur to change G3P to RuBP (recycling)  Uses ATP which is then changed to ADP o In order to produce one molecule of glucose- need 6 carbons  Therefore need to start with six molecules of CO2  With 6 molecules of CO2, need 6 molecules of RuBP (5 C sugar): therefore 30 C total  RuBP and CO2 join to have 36 C which then splits into 3PG (3 C sugars each)  Therefore makes 12x 3PG molecules  Results in 12x G3P molecules  2 G3P molecules form glucose (6C) again  Remaining 10 G3P (3C) molecules are transformed back into 6 RuBP (5C)  The number of carbons don’t change over the cycle 30 C of 10x G3P molecules changes 30 C of the 6x RuBP molecules o 6CO2 + 6H2O  6O2 + C6H12O6  H2O goes through photolysis in photosystem II in light dependent reactions  O2 is released after photolysis and electrons are transported to electron transport chain  CO2 is obtained from environment and used in Calvin cycle (carbon fixation)  Glucose is produced through Calvin cycle (carbon fixation)  Discovery of Carbon Fixation Process o Calvin, Benson, and Bassham worked together  Used radioactive carbon dioxide and observed first products by a culture of algae  Many algae were showing radioactive trace which showed the transfer of carbons through the cycle  Observed the radioactive label spread to other sugars 30 seconds after inputting the radioactive labeled carbon dioxide  The most intensely labeled sugar (in shortest time of observation) was 3PG, which showed that it was the first molecule after CO2 was inputted into the Calvin cycle.  3PG would be reduced using ATP and NADPH to G3P o ATP and NADPH are intermediates of glycolysis which are also used in the production of G3P – uses substrate phosphorylation  Hypothesis: The process is cyclic- researchers struggled to discover the ribulose sugar in the beginning of the process  The reaction of ribulose + CO2 to form 3PG does not require light  The reaction of changing 3PG to G3P did require light  Compound X (ribulose) would accumulate if there was no CO2  5 Carbon compound combines with carbon dioxide and create a very unstable six carbon molecule that immediately breaks down into two three carbon molecules  All done through the RUBISCO enzyme  All photosynthetic organisms and some chemosynthetic organisms use rubisco  Two molecules of G3P are very high energy- can spontaneously for a molecule of glucose  Two molecules of G3P are created but only one molecule of G3P leaves the cycle to bind with another G3P to create glucose  The remaining G3P molecules recycle to create RuBP once again  Process:  CO2 + RuBP  3PG + ATP and 3PG + NADPH  2x G3P  1x G3P leaves the cycle to create glucose, the other G3P is recycled back to make RuBP again  6CO2 6 molecules of 3PG  6 molecules of G3P (consumes 6 ATP and 6 NADPH), 1 molecules of G3P exits, 5 remaining molecules of G3P are used to make RuBP again (consumes 3 ATP)  Net Input: 3CO2, 6 NADPH, 9 ATP  Glucose created in Calvin cycle is used in cellular respiration to create ATP for the cell; also used in biosynthetic pathways to create different molecules for other organelles for the cell  RuBP can be used to form the nucleotides for nucleic acids  Organic carbons can be used to make lipids and proteins as well for the cell


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