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CHD 2220 Chapter 12: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood -Piaget advances of thought; seriation -Characteristics of high quality schools -Ethnicities in School -Multigrade Education -ADHD -Learning Disabilities -Attention -Internal/External Motivations -Memory -Metacognition -IQ, traditional, triarchic, multiple (nature/nuture) -Dynamic Assessment -Whole language vs. Phonics; math & reading -Inclusion -Computers -Giftedness; Mental Retardation/Organic rd 1. Piaget’s Theory- The Concrete Operational Stage (3 stage): affects kids 7-12 yrs old. Thought becomes more logical (taking multiple aspects of a situation into account; but only about the here & now), flexible, & organized. a. Mastery of conservation requires decentration (focus on several aspects of a problem & relate them) & reversibility (think through series of steps in a problem & then mentally reverse direction; returning to starting point) in thinking. kids are able to conserve in some areas but not others; horizontal decalage. i. Remember this is only when they are dealing with concrete, tangible information, and mastery occurs gradually. ii. Some cultures, associated with schooling, promote mastery of Piagetian tasks. b. School aged children are better at hierarchical classification: seriation (ability to order items along a quantitative dimension; like length/weight). They can order toys or sticks from largest to smallest. Also able to do transitive inference (seriate mentally). Classification allows them to think logically. c. Spatial Reasoning improves, able to understand spatial relationships like maps and directions. i. Cognitive Maps: by end of middle childhood, they can form accurate overall views of large scale spaces & grasp the meaning of scale & map symbols. They have mental representations of familiar large scale spaces (neighborhoods, schools, church). d. Thought becoming less egocentric and less self centered e. Criticisms: probably more continuous than Piaget thought, rather than an abrupt change to a new stage of thinking. Also, a blend of information processing & Piaget seem to be a good idea by some researchers. i. Case’s neo-Piagetian theory proposed gains in working memory efficiency & explain cognitive change within/between stages. ii. Applications to Education: 1. Take a constructivist approach; children learn best when they are active & seek solutions for themselves. 2. Facilitate learning, don’t direct 3. Use ongoing assessment- not standard tests but collections of their work like portfolios. 4. Promote intellectual health and don’t try to push children or pressure them. 5. Turn the classroom into a setting of exploration & discovery; not as much structure as a traditional classroom, children should be allowed to learn on their own; kind of what we think of as centers in a preschool classroom. 2. Information Processing: Improved executive function enables kids to handle increasingly complex tasks that require integration of working memory, inhibition, and flexible thinking. Heredity and environment combine to influence various executive processes. Brain development= Gains in information processing capacity (more efficient thinking) & gains in cognitive inhibition (ability to resist interference from external/internal distractions. a. Working Memory supported by increased speed of thinking. Children with deficits suffer from persistent learning difficulties in school. Long term memory increases with age because of improvements in knowledge & strategies kids use to retain information. Children’s motivation to use what they know also contributes. st i. Strategies used to retain indormation: rehearsal (appears 1 ) and organization (appears 2 ) by repeating information & grouping related items. Elaboration (appears 3 ), which is creating a relationship between two pieces of information; making up a story to combine words in order to remember a list. With age, children use several memory strategies at once. 1. Memory strategies not used by children in village cultures who have no formal schooling. Societal modernization is broadly associated with improved cognitive performance. 2. Internal/External Motivations- memory processing, along with knowledge, influence memory processing. Children who are expert in one area are usually highly motivated. They tend to acquire knowledge quickly & actively use what they know to add more. Knowledge & use of memory strategies support one another. Academically unsuccessful kids fail to ask how previously stored information can clarify new material. b. ADHD: during middle childhood attention becomes more sustained, selective, and flexible. Deficits in executive processing & inhibition lead to ADHD, which leads to serious academic & social problems. Children can show one or more characteristics consistently; inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity. Onset of these characteristics in early childhood is required, characteristics must debilitate the child. 7% of U.S. children have ADHD and numbers have increased greatly; why? Not sure, maybe a better diagnosis or maybe we expect too much from children. c. Metacognition expands as school aged children view the mind as active, constructive agent. Better understand cognitive processes & factors that influence them. Better awareness of the role of mental inferences enables mastery of second order false belief & promotes recursive thought (view a situation from at least two perspectives, to reason simultaneously about what two or more people are thinking). Also, they become increasingly conscious of how and why mental strategies work & able to discriminate good from bad reasoning. d. Cognitive self regulation develops gradually, improves with adult instruction in effective strategy use, & predicts academic success. Able to continuously monitor progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts. e. Whole-language & Phonics: a combo of both is most effective for teaching beginner reading. Skilled reading draws on all aspects of the information processing system. Teaching that combines practice in basic skills with conceptual understanding also is best in math. Students benefit from extensive opportunities to experiment with strategies & reason about number concepts. i. Phonetic/basic skills approach emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words (more traditional). It’s built around teacher directed; skill & drill ii. Whole language emphasizes visual retrieval & use of contextual cues. Its built around real literature, open ended, and student initiated activities. Based off the belief that kids can learn to read & write naturally; like how we learn how to talk. Kids are encouraged to experience the purpose of written communication. It’s better if children see language as a whole and not a series of isolated sounds/symbols that must be learned by memorization/drill 1. Critics say whole language encourages kids to skim through the text and guess at words and their meaning. Spelling and reading errors are not corrected and reading must be taught. Need blend of both aspects! 3. Individual Differences in Mental Development: IQ becomes more stable & correlates moderately with academic achievement. Most intelligence tests yield an overall score as well as scores for separate intellectual factors. a. Traditional IQ tests measure analytical ability, which may explain why intelligence tests are less useful in predicting outside school success. They only look at linguistic, logical-mathematical, & spatial reasoning. b. Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5 edition, 2 yrs-adults. Assesses general knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual spatial processing, working memory, & basic information processing (speed of analyzing information). Each factor includes both verbal & nonverbal mode of testing= 10 subtests. c. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV): this is the most widely used individual test; 4 edition tests 6-16 yr olds. Assesses verbal reasoning, perceptual (or visual-spatial) reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Each factor made up of 2-3 subtests= 10 separate scores. Does not emphasize culture; the most culture fair IQ test. Uses 100 score as the base just as Standford- Binet test. d. SternBerg’s Triarchic Theory views intelligence as an interaction of analytical intelligence (information processing skills), creative intelligence (ability to solve novel/familiar problems), and practical intelligence (application of intellectual skills in everyday situations/environment). e. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 1993 identifies 8 mental abilities, each with distinct biological basis & course of development. This is helpful in stimulating efforts to define, measure, and foster emotional intelligence. Gardner is a professor at Harvard i. Linguistic (poet, Journalist)- sensitive to sounds, rhythms, & meaning of words/functions of language ii. Logical-mathematical (mathematician)- can detect logical or numerical patterns, able to handle long chains of logical reasoning iii. Musical (instrumentalist, Composer)- able to produce & appreciate pitch, rhythm/melody, and aesthetic quality of the forms of musical expressiveness iv. Spatial (sculptor, navigator)- able to perceive visual/spatial world accurately, perform transformations on those perceptions, & recreate aspects of visual experiences in the absence of relevant stimuli. v. Bodily-kinesthetic (dancer/athlete)- able to use the body skillfully or expressively as well as goal directed purposes. Able to handle objects skillfully. vi. Naturalist (biologist)- able to recognize & classify all varieties of animals, minerals, & plants. vii. Interpersonal (therapist, salesperson)- able to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others. viii. Intrapersonal (person with detailed, accurate self knowledge)- able to discriminate complex inner feelings and use them to guide one’s own behavior, knowledge of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences. f. Flynn Effect (the dramatic generational gains in IQ) and heritability/adoption research; has the influence of nature and nurture. The black/white IQ gap accounts for environmental differences. IQ scores are affected by culturally influenced language/communication styles, knowledge, and sheer amount of time spent in school. Stereotype threat can trigger anxiety that impair test performance. i. Dynamic assessment helps many minority children perform more competently on mental tests. This is an innovative approach to testing; consistent with Vygotsky’s ZPD, where the adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support. 4. Language Development: a. Metalinguistic awareness- contributions from schooling, reading, & other complex language competencies. The ability to think about language as a system. Vocabulary continues to grow rapidly & children have more precise & flexible understanding of word meanings. They are able to use more complex grammatical constructions/conversational strategies & their narratives increase in organization, detail, and expressiveness b. Bilingual children who learn two languages in early childhood acquire each according to a typical timetable. When school age children acquire a second language, they typically take 5-7 yrs to attain the competence of native speaking age-mates. They are better at diverse executive function skills & certain aspects of metalinguistic awareness. They’re able to transfer their phonological awareness skills in one language to the other, which enhances reading achievement. i. In Canada, language immersion programs succeed in developing children who are proficient in both English & French. ii. In US, bilingual education that combines instruction in the native language & in English support academic learning in children with limited English proficiency. 5. Children’s Learning in School: as class size declines, academic achievement improves. a. Traditional Classrooms- older students in these classrooms have a slight edge in academic achievement over those in constructivist classrooms. They have gains in academic motivation, critical thinking, & social/moral maturity. The teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, & decision making. Students are relatively passive learners who are evaluated in relation to a uniform set of standards for their grade. Mastery of skills, high expectations for student progress, & a lot of time spent on learning tasks. Direct instruction advocates say that constructivist approach does not give enough information. b. Constructivist Classroom- Piaget’s view of children as active learners who construct their own knowledge. Features include richly equipped learning centers, small groups/individuals solving self chosen problems, teacher who guides/supports in response to children’s needs, & evaluation based on individual students’ progress in relation to their own prior development. Learner centered approach that emphasizes individuals constructing knowledge. Constructivist advocates say that direct instruction makes children passive learners and that they are memorizing things and not learning how to think. i. Social-Constructivist Classrooms- Vygotsky inspired, uses the rich social context of the classroom to promote learning. Often employs such methods as reciprocal teaching & communities of learners. Students benefit from working collaboratively & from teaching adapted to each child’s zone of proximal development. Children work with teachers & peers in wide range of challenging activities. Teachers & children are partners; they experience many types of symbolic communication in meaningful activities. Examples high quality education 1. Reciprocal teaching- teacher & 2-4 students form a cooperative group, take turns leading dialogues, & creating a ZPD in which children scaffold one another’s progress 2. Communities of learners- teachers guide the overall process of learning; no distinction is made between adult/child contributors. All participates in joint endeavors (students) have the authority to define/resolve problems as they work toward project goals, which often address complex real world issues. c. Educational Self-Fulfilling Prophecies- greater impact on low achievers; most likely to occur in homogenous classrooms, the ones that emphasize competition/public evaluation. Teachers who have positive or negative views of children; those children tend to adopt & live up to those views. Caring, helpful, & stimulating teaching foster children’s motivation and academic achievement. Teachers criticize & rarely call on poor students. i. Multigrade Education- involves teaching children of different grade levels in one classroom. Usually located in low SES neighborhood with low SES kids. Children do not receive high quality education in this form. d. Cooperative Learning- collaboration on a task by a small group of classmates who work toward common goals by considering one another’s ideas, appropriately challenging one another, providing sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings, and resolving differences of opinion on the basis of reasons and evidence. Children can benefit from collaboration with heterogeneous peers. Ethnically diverse magnet schools are associated with higher achievement. Homogenous grouping is not good, better to have heterogeneous groups of abilities but they have to know how to work together toward to a common goal. e. Ethnicity in Schools: widespread SES & ethnic segregation in U.S. schools consigns large numbers of low SES, minority students to a form of schoolwide, homogeneous grouping. Brown vs. Board of Education (Supreme Court) decision to desegregate schools in 1954. The racial divide in American education has improved only slightly. Minority and low SES children are subjected to low quality education due to funding for the public school system. i. Magnet schools offer the usual curriculum plus an emphasis in arts, math/science, or technology. They are often located in low income, minority areas. Applicants are from neighboring populations and outside the school neighborhood; hence the name magnet, voluntarily desegregated (diverse). They show greater gains in reading & math achievement over a period of 2 yrs, especially for low SES, ethnic minority students. f. Computer use is associated with academic progress. Screen media for schoolwork, including searching for information, preparing assignments, and playing academic/nonviolent adventure games, has cognitive benefits & is linked to improved achievement. Low SES children are disadvantaged in computer & internet use. Boys tend to be more skilled at complex computer activities than girls. g. Inclusive Classrooms- classrooms for students with learning difficulties learn alongside typical students in a regular educational setting for part or all of the school day. Students with mild intellectual disabilities and learning disabilities are often placed here too; success depends on meeting individual academic needs and promoting positive peer relations. i. Learning Disabilities- legislation requires students with learning disabilities be placed in the least restrictive environments for educational needs. These students learn alongside typical students. IQs typically fall between 55-70 and show issues in adaptive behavior and/or skills in everyday living. Affects 5-10% of kids, & the most common disability in reading. h. Giftedness includes high IQ (130 or higher), creativity, & talent. Gifted children are more likely than their peers to experience social isolation. Gifted children who thrive have parents & teachers who nurture their extraordinary abilities & make reasonable demands. They are best served by educational programs that build on their special strengths. They have precocity & master skills earlier than their peers. They usually march to their own drummer, learn differently than ordinary children, and have a passion to master (driven to understand & motivate themselves). i. No Child Left Behind was passed by the Bush administration; was meant to make education in all states similar; so there aren’t differences in what children are learning or the quality of their education. Accountability is a big focus on NCLB, state mandated testing. Critics say there is too much focus on testing like the FCAT; memorization of information to pass tests, children lose creativity/critical thinking, and haven’t closed the gap between black/white; which is one of the goals of NCLB. U.S. students typically display average or below average performance. Compared with education in top achieving nations, U.S. instruction is less focused on high level reasoning & critical thinking. High achieving nations emphasize equal opportunity for all. U.S. low income and ethnic minority students typically attend inferior quality schools. i. High Quality School Characteristics: 1. Small class size: children do better, especially minorities. Children get more attention from teachers and interact with each other in more positive ways. 2. Physical setting: usually set up in centers like whole group & small group activities 3. Curriculum: traditional vs. constructivist. Traditional leads to slightly better academic achievement but constructivist leads to gains in critical thinking and more positive attitudes towards school; like preschools that are child centered. 4. Daily activities: challenging, small group, & independent work. Teachers encourage cooperative learning 5. Interactions Between Teachers/Children: too many teachers emphasize kill & drill over higher level thinking. Children are much more attentive when they are using their thinking skills. 6. Evaluations of Progress: written observations, work samples, & use of these inform their teaching 7. Relationships with Parents: conferences, ability of parents to visit classrooms, and volunteer. CHD 2220 Chapter 13: Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood: -Coregulation, Induction -Self Descriptions -Self Concept, Self Esteem (how to improve?) -Erikson -Prejudice -Peers (5 categories, intervention) -Gender Stereotyping (real differences b/t boys & girls) -Bullying -Maternal EmploymentZ -Divorce (how to be most effective?) -Gay Parenting -Parenting Changes (as managers) -Parental Treatment & Sibling Relationship -Only Children -Mastery Orientation 1. Erikson’s Theory: Industry vs. Inferiority a. Children who resolve this psychological conflict develop a sense of competence at useful skills & tasks, learn the value of division of labor, and develop a sense of moral commitment & responsibility. Usually children through 6-12 yrs; their world is expanding to include neighborhood, school, & community (not just family). This is during the beginning of formal schooling & children engage in work; if children do not feel good about their abilities they will feel inferior. 2. Self Understanding: During middle childhood, children’s self concepts include personality traits (both positive & negative), competencies, and social comparisons. a. Social Comparisons- children distinguishing themselves from others in comparative terms. “What can I do compared to others?” They also make judgements of their own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to others. b. Perspective Taking- having the ability to assume other people’s perspectives & understand their thoughts & feelings. Usually 6-8 years, able to understand that others have perspectives. c. Self Esteem differentiates further, becomes hierarchically organized & more realistic as children receive more competence related feedback & compare their performance to that of others. Global evaluations of the self. It’s important but it can be accurate or inaccurate. A kid may think they are super smart but in reality they’re really not. Today, many people worry that children have inflated self esteem & it’s not based on reality but on the way we clap for children when they do the smallest things. i. How do we effectively increase low self esteem? 1. Identify causes of low self esteem 2. Provide emotional support & social approval 3. Help children achieve 4. Help children cope d. Self Concept- refers to domain specific evaluations of the self; academic, athletic, appearance, etc. personality traits and physical appearance. e. Cultural forces and Child Rearing practices affect self esteem. Gender stereotypes contribute to sex differences in physical, academic, and social self esteem. Warm extended families & strong ethnic pride may contribute to the slight self esteem advantage of African American kids over White kids; authoritative child rearing style contributes to this. f. Achievement Related Attributions- attributions that are everyday explanations of the causes of behavior. These attributions are determined by adult communication with parents & teachers. i. Mastery Oriented Attributions- these children hold incremental views of ability, believing that it can be improved by trying hard & attribute failure to insufficient effort. Supportive parents/teachers & cultural valuing of effort increase the likelihood of a mastery-oriented approach. Process praise (“you worked really hard” or “you figured it out”), focusing on behavior & effort foster a mastery orientation. These kids tend to be high in academic self esteem. Teachers tend to emphasize learning rather than getting good grades. ii. Learn Helplessness- this is in contrast to the above; these children attribute success to external factors, such as luck, & hold a fixed view of ability. They believe their failures are due to low ability, which cannot be modified by effort. These kids often give up when a task is difficult without really trying (relates to Erikson’s inferiority theory). 1. By teaching children that abilities are fixed, person praise (praise from an adult that emphasizes the child’s traits; “you’re so smart, you’re very artistic”) promotes learned helplessness. Parents usually tell their children, “You can’t do it? Well it’s ok, it’s too hard for you”….no It’s actually not ok. 2. Attribution Retraining encourages learned helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. Its an intervention basically to make them put forth some effort and try using more effective strategies. Teachers give children tasks difficult enough that they will experience some failure/confusion followed by feedback that helps them revise their attributions; “you can do it if you try harder.” 3. Emotional Development: Self conscious emotions of pride & guilt become clearly governed by personal responsibly. Intense shame can shatter self esteem. a. Understanding Emotion- School aged children recognize that people can experience more than one emotion at a time & that emotional expressions may not reflect people’s true feelings. You can be happy & anxious at the same time. They also reconcile contradictory cues in interpreting another’s feelings (like being aware of events leading to emotional reactions; knowing an upcoming test will make you anxious). Empathy increases & includes sensitivity to people’s immediate distress & their general life condition. They have a capacity for genuine empathy which can put themselves in someone else’s place to see how they would feel. They are better able to suppress/conceal negative emotions like controlling their anger when irritated. Children use self initiated strategies to redirect feelings. b. By age 10, most children can regulate emotion. Emotionally well regulated children develop a sense of emotional self efficacy; optimistic, prosocial, & well-liked by peers. i. Problem Centered Coping- a strategy for managing emotion in which the individual appraises the situation as changeable, identifies the difficulty, & decides what to do about it ii. Emotion Centered Coping- strategy for managing emotion that is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome. 4. Moral Development: During middle childhood, children construct a flexible appreciation of moral rules. They clarify/link moral imperatives & social conventions; considering the purpose of the rule like intentions, knowledge, beliefs, and the context of their actions. a. Improved Understanding of Individual Rights: when moral & personal concerns conflict, older school age children typically emphasize fairness. Children in diverse cultures use similar criteria to reason about moral, social conventional, & personal concerns. b. Prejudice: children pick up prevailing societal attitudes about race & ethnicity. With age, school age children understand that people who look different do not need to think, feel, or act differently and that prejudice violates widely held social standards. Explicit prejudice typically declines, although prejudice often continues to operate implicitly. The kids who most likely hold racial & ethnic biases usually think personality traits are fixed, they have overly high self esteem, & live around adults who highlight group differences. Long term diverse contact may be most effective at reducing prejudice. 5. Peer Relations: Peer interaction becomes more prosocial, and physical aggression declines. Interaction and perspective taking are critical aspects of the environment that cause children to develop moral reasoning. Adults impose their rules on peer relations on children; there is a give & take with peers. Friendships develop into mutual relationships based on trust and become more selective. a. Peer Groups- children begin to organize themselves by the end of middle childhood. Groups generate values/standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders & followers. This is usually based on proximity & similarity of sex, ethnicity, and popularity (others; age, race, SES, personality, academic achievement, prosocial behavior). Girls form closer and more exclusive friendships than boys. With peer culture kids usually dress, talk, and act the same. b. Peer Acceptance- strong predictor of current & future psychological problems. c. Social Preferences: 2/3 of children fall into these 4 categories i. Popular Children- well liked by many classmates; receive positive votes & many friends. These kids listen carefully, show enthusiasm & concern for others, act like themselves (true personality), and they’re self confident but not too much. 1. Popular Prosocial Children- academically & socially competent 2. Popular Antisocial Children- aggressive but admired; perhaps for their athletic ability & sophisticated but devious social skills. Incudes tough boys who are poor students. With age, these kids are liked less and less and may be rejected eventually. ii. Rejected Children- are mostly disliked and nobody’s friend. Tend to have behavior problems & serious adjustment problems. 1. Rejected Aggressive kids- especially high in conflict & hostility. Tend to be belligerent, aggressive, emotionally reactive, impulsive, and fewer social skills. Consists ½ of rejected children. These kids do not take responsibility for social failures and remain withdrawn; its like a learned helpless approach; will never be liked. 2. Rejected Withdrawn kids- passive, shy, socially awkward, frequent target for peer victimization (destructive form of peer interaction; targets for verbal/physical attacks and or forms of abuse). Consists of only about 20% of rejected children. iii. Controversial Children- are both liked and disliked. They have a mix of positive and negative behaviors & opinions of theses kids are mixed. iv. Neglected Children- arouse little reaction, positive or negative, but are usually well adjusted. These kids are chosen by no one (group activities), hardly any friends, but not disliked. They may have one friend, low rates of interaction with peers, shy, but they’re socially skilled; they just like to be on their own. d. Average Children- receive average numbers of positive & negative reactions. These are the kids that do not fall into the 4 main categories. e. Interventions: Peer acceptance/social preferences tend to stay consistent from childhood to adulthood. Once you’re labeled, its almost impossible to change. Children who are excluded from these groups usually find a lower status peer group. Traits of these kids usually do not change and they’re self perpetuating (a system that prevents change & produces new things that are very similar to the old ones). On going cycle of acceptance and labeling. i. Unpopular/rejected kids benefit from coaching/modeling in social skills, academic tutoring, training in perspective taking, & social problem solving. But to produce lasting change, intervening in parent/child interaction is often necessary. f. Bullying: rejected aggressive children often also act as bullies. About 20% of kids are bullies, while 25% are repeatedly victimized. Most boys engage in face to face physical & verbal attacks. Girls usually bombard vulnerable classmates with verbal & relational hostility. Adolescent bullies tend to attack through electronic means. 20- 40% of youths have experienced cyberbullying through text, email, chat rooms, or electronic tools and its usually the route taken by girl bullies. Boys more often distribute embarrassing photos or videos. Traditional bullying & cyberbullying frequently co occur; bullies & victims in one context are frequently involved in the other. Usually victims of cyberbullying do not report it & the bully stays unknown. Most bullies are dislikes but many are very popular. Peer rejected children are often targets and their classmates are not likely to defend them. Bullying in schools usually occur when teachers are unfair/uncaring. Bullies display social cognitive deficits, overly high self esteem, pride in their acts, and indifference to harm done to their victims. 6. Gender Typing: School age kids extend their awareness of gender stereotypes to personality traits & academic subjects. Children who are strongly gender typed (subjected to certain gender roles) in early childhood usually remain so in middle school; overall changes do occur. Of course, kids are greatly influenced by their parents, society, and teacher’s expectations. a. Gender Stereotype Flexibility- children develop a more open minded view of what males and females can do. Girls tend to be more open minded than boys. Boys tend to get negative views from others when they play with dolls. b. Real Differences- boys strengthen their identification with the masculine role, whereas girls feel free to experiment with “cross gender” activities. Gender identity includes self evaluations of gender typicality (being similar to others, like fitting in), contentedness (happy with gender assignment), & felt pressure to conform to gender roles (ALL affect adjustment). i. Girls Stereotypes: gentle, affectionate, dependent. Reading, spelling, art, and music are regarded for girls to kids. They prefer quiet activities, politeness, & compromise. As they get older, they tend to expand their gender characteristics (cooking/sewing & sports/science projects) and often consider male dominate careers. ii. Boys Stereotypes: tough, aggressive, rational, dominant, masculine. Math, science, athletics, and mechanical skills are regarded for boys to kids. Boys think its ok to exclude girls from activities. They prefer active pursuits & command forceful behavior. They usually strengthen their traits as they get older. 7. Family Influences: parent/child communication, sibling relationships, marriage, & divorce impact in middle childhood. a. Coregulation- allows parents to exercise general oversight of children who increasingly make their own decisions. Overall the time spent with parents decline due to school, work, and extracurricular activities. b. Siblings- rivalry tends to increase with greater participation in diverse activities & more frequent parental comparisons. Siblings often try to reduce this rivalry by striving to be different from one another. Unfair treatment & comparisons from parents affect sibling relationships especially when their kids are close in age and the same sex. Parental stressors affect parenting; making them less careful about being fair to their children. Parents who are distant and uninvolved have children who rely on each other to fill the void. c. Only Children (who aren’t spoiled) do not differ from children with siblings in self related personality traits & are higher in self esteem, school performance, & educational attainment. In China, only kids do better than kids with big families, but this is probably from government tension/disapproval. d. Gay & Lesbian Parents are as committed to & effective at child rearing as heterosexual parents. Their children don’t differ from kids of hetero parents in adjustment (mental health), gender identity, sexual orientation, or peer relations… except in feeling slightly less parental pressure to conform to gender roles. Millions of gay Americans are parents because of previous marriages, adopting, & reproductive technology. Only a few U.S. states have banned gay adoption so the only difference is some gay couples may not have supportive society. e. Never Married Parents usually have financial hardship for low SES mothers & their children. Children of never married mothers who lack a father’s supportive involvement tend to achieve less in school & engage in more antisocial behavior than children in low SES, first marriage families. f. Divorce is stressful for children and there are individual differences based on parental psychological health, child characteristics (age, temperament, sex), & social supports. Children with difficult temperaments are at higher risk for adjustment problems. In both sexes, divorce is linked to early sexual activity, adolescent parenthood, & long term relationship issues. Main factor for positive adjustment of kids after a divorce is effective parenting (shield children from conflict & stress). The U.S. has the highest rate of divorce in the world and has tripled since 1960. 45% of marriages end in divorce. Children who are younger than 6 yrs are more anxious about divorce, less realistic perceptions, adapt easily, & more likely to blame themselves. They adapt easily if they have been shielded from parental b.s. & improve adjustment 2 yrs after divorce. Fathers who see their children only occasionally are inclined to be permissive & indulgent, making the mother’s task of managing the child even more difficult i. Is it better for parents to divorce or not? Depends on level of conflict. If conflict decreases after divorce, then yes it is better. But If there is low conflict in the marriage to begin with, it’s better to stay together until children are grown (70% of marriages are low in conflict). Children do not get used to conflict between parents, they become more sensitive the more they are exposed. School age kids are sensitive to parental pressures & loyalty issues. They fear abandonment & rejection. Boys may have harder time adjusting than girls. ii. Divorce Mediation and parent education programs can foster parental conflict resolution & cooperation in the period surrounding divorce. The success of joint custody depends on effective coparenting. iii. When divorced parents enter new relationships: blended or reconstituted families; Stepparents can help children adjust by moving into their roles gradually and don’t try to be head parent. Positive father/child relationships have a protective value as do caring extended family members, teachers, siblings, and friends. 1. Blended families- stepfamilies are bigger than natural families. This creates many stressors. Child’s loyalties to biological parents may interfere with bonding. Remarriages are more likely to fail than first marriages; higher divorce rate. Mother/step father families; boys may benefit from stepfather and girls may have trouble with stepdads. Father/step mother families; there’s a reduced contact with biological children because the dad withdraws from previous family. Girls have loyalty issues with stepmother & biological mother; girls & older children tend to have more adjustment problems. iv. Consequences- immediately; family conflict arises, sharp drop in income for mothers who are head of households, and high maternal stress/depression/anxiety (no schedule, unorganized house). Long term; kids are more likely to drop out of high school, have lower academic achievement, they are more likely to have sex early, cohabit (live with significant other), marry young, early/unwed parents, form unstable relationships that end in divorce. This research is correlational meaning there is no cause and effect. g. Maternal employment- enjoy their work & remain committed to parenting. Their children benefit from higher self esteem, more positive family/peer relations, less gender stereotyped beliefs, and better school grades. ¾ of U.S. moms work. h. Both Working Parents- the father’s willingness to share household responsibilities is linked to many positive child outcomes. It’s also great when the workplace supports demands for work and child rearing. Children receive an impact depending on age, temperament, sex; whether or not mom decides to work, how supportive her mate is, full/part time, and whether the care is high quality. Girls benefit from mom’s working, they are more achievement and career oriented. i. Child rearing/Induction: authoritative child rearing, parental monitoring, and regular after school chores lead self care children (they regularly look after themselves for a bit after school) to be more responsible & well adjusted. Good after care programs also aid school performance, emotional, and social adjustment; low SES children showing special benefits. The homes tend to be more structured, kids encouraged to be independent, and egalitarian (equality) attitude about gender roles. 8. Some Common Problems of Development a. School age children have fears directed toward new concerns, including personal harm, media events, academic failure, parents’ health, and peer rejection. Children with inhibited temperaments are at high risk for developing phobias (fears). Harsh living conditions that present constant danger, chaos, & deprivations, can result in long term emotional stress & behavior issues. b. Sexual abuse is generally committed by male family members, more often against girls than boys. Abusers have characteristics that predispose them toward sexual exploitations of children. Reported cases are strongly associated with poverty & martial instability. c. Abused kids often have severe adjustment issues. Treatment requires specialized trauma-focused therapy with child and parent. Educational programs that teach children to recognize inappropriate sexual advances & who to turn to for help reduce the risk of sexual abuse. d. Only a modest relationship exists between stressful life experiences & psychological disturbances in childhood. Children’s personal characteristics, warm family, authoritative parenting, and school/community resources predict resilience. Each resource that favors resilience usually strengthens others; developmental cascade. CHD 2220 Chapter 7: Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood -Erikson (Trust vs Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt) -Basic Emotions; Social Smile -Social Referencing -Emotional Self-Regulation -Self-Esteem -Temperament (Effortful control, goodness of fit, 3 types) -Attachment (Stages, Types, Strange situation, factors that affect security) -Interactional Synchrony -Child Care -Mom vs Dad Parenting 1. Erikson’s Theory of Infant and Toddler Personality: These two stages lay the foundation for behavior a. Trust vs Mistrust- 1 stage; birth-2 years. Warm responsive caregiving leads infants to solve conflicts in a positive manner. Infants more likely to learn if they can trust their world. How quickly a parent responds to relieving their baby’s discomfort (crying, sensitivity, holding them, feeding them) will influence their basic trust for the world. An infant who has basic trust for their world will feel confident about venturing out, exploring the world, and preparing for toddlerhood. i. A child who is mistrustful due to mistreatment or neglect could learn to be trusting if their environment improves (parenting classes, different home). Mistrusted infants seem to withdraw themselves from people and things around them. b. Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt- 2 ndstage; 2-3 years. Toddlers are trying to assert their independence by trying to do things on their own: “I want to do it” or “let me do it”. Parents should give them freedom within limits and let toddlers make choices where appropriate. If parents are too strict, discipline will make toddlers doubt their abilities and feel unconfident about themselves. 2. Emotional Development a. Primary/Basic emotions- present in humans and animals; happiness, interest, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, disgust. These appear in the first 6 months and become clear as well organized signals. Face to face interaction with parents promote happy emotions like smiling and laughter. Babies can also tell your emotions by facial expressions. A baby’s earliest emotions are attraction to pleasant stimuli and withdrawal to unpleasant stimuli. Hunger, changes in body temperature, inability to control their environment, and too little/too much stimulation can promote anger. Fear is usually caused by stranger anxiety. The ability of babies to communicate is important to create relationships with caregivers/parents. i. Crying- the most important mechanism infants have to communicate. They have 3 types of cries: basic cry, angry cry, pain cry. ii. Smiling- a reflexive smile is first and occurs because of external stimuli; gas smile. Social smiling (4-6 months) occurs in response to external stimulus; face to face interaction between parent and child. iii. Fear- is an early emotion that appears at 6 months. Abused and neglected children show fear as early as 3 months. Stranger anxiety is the most common reason for baby fear; can be intense at 9 months. Fear can be decreased when they are in their own homes because they feel more secure. A Secure Base (home or familiar caregiver) allow children to feel at ease around strangers. b. Self Conscious Emotions require the baby/toddler to be self aware. They will experience jealousy, empathy, pride, guilt, and embarrassment. Usually begins around 6 months-1 year. Toddlers usually show shame and embarrassment by lowering their eyes/head or hiding. Social referencing allows infants to be aware of other’s emotional reactions; like when a parent congratulates them for throwing a ball or winning a game. c. Emotional self regulation appears when caregivers sensitively assist infants in adjusting their emotional reactions. Caregivers use strategies to adjust their baby’s emotional stages to a more comfortable level. Babies need caregivers to help them calm down by picking them up and soothing them. i. Should we pick a baby every time they cry? Can you spoil an infant by picking them up? You can NOT spoil a baby in that way. Parents should soothe babies when they can. Parents who sooth babies quickly usually have babies who are less fussy. This allows the baby to develop trust. When a parent does not respond promptly or does so in an angry way the child is not able to calm themselves later on in infancy. 3. Temperament and Development- babies develop an ability to inhibit or minimize intensity and the duration of an emotional reaction; they are able to sooth themselves, which is important for temperament. Temperament is a person’s way of responding to the world; their behavior style. Also, the stability is low to moderate; it develops with age & can be modified by experience. Temperament comes from nature and nurture. We inherit a type of temperament but the environment can modify the temperament; shy children (inhibited) can become less shy or sociable (uninhibited). a. Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess- Their model inspired all that followed but did NOT fit all children (35%) because they were a mix of temperaments. New York Longitudinal Study identified three patterns: i. The Easy child (40%)- quickly establish regular routines as an infant, he or she is generally happy, and adapts easily to new experiences. ii. The Difficult child (10%)- irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, & tend to react negatively and intensely iii. Slow to warm up child (15%)- inactive, mild to low key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences b. Effortful Control- one’s ability to regulate one’s reactions to stimuli; controlling your own behavior. Having the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response by reordering and executing an adaptive response. Long term prediction from early temperament is best achieved after the age of 3, when children improve substantially in effortful control. i. The most influential model of temperament is devised by Mary Rothbart and includes dimensions representing emotion, attention, action, along with effortful control. c. Goodness of Fit Model- match between a child’s temperament & the environment with which the child must cope. Creating child rearing environments that recognize the child’s temperament while encouraging more adaptive function. A child who is difficult and have parents who are stressed with little time/patience is not a good match between temperament and environment. Positive/sensitive parents help children regulate emotion and allow difficultness to decline; but still need positive environment (school, marriage, neighborhood). i. Child rearing and cultural beliefs (nurture). Parenting practices that fit well with the child’s temperament help children achieve more adaptive functioning. ii. Genetic foundation (nature) has an effect on temperament like having a short 5-HTTLPR gene, which heightens risk of negative mood, fearfulness, self regulation difficulties, and are more susceptible to effects of rearing experiences. These children tend to function worse than other children when exposed to bad parenting BUT benefit most from good parenting. 4. Development of Attachment- A close emotional bond between two people (ethological theory) that begins with a means of survival. a. Stages of Attachment: supported by cognitive and emotional capacities. i. Pre-Attachment Phase (birth-6 weeks)- built in signals (smiling, grasping, crying, gazing) bring newborns into close contact with people who comfort them. They recognized their mother’s voice, smell, and face. BUT not yet attached to her (don’t mind being left with unfamiliar adult). ii. Attachment in the Making Phase (6 weeks- 6-8 months)- infants respond differently to familiar caregiver compared to a stranger. Infants learn their own actions affect the behavior of those around them and they develop a sense of trust (expecting response from caregiver when signaled). BUT still doesn’t protest when separated from mother. iii. Clear Cut Attachment Phase (6-8 months- 18months until 2 yrs)- attachment to caregiver is evident! Protest’s the parent’s departure; older infants try hard to maintain mother’s presence. Approach, follow, and climb on mother in preference of others. 1. Separation Anxiety- gets upset when trusted caregiver leaves, but that does not always occur; depends on infant’s temperament & current situation. Infants have developed a clear understanding that the caregiver continues to exist when not in view. 2. Secure Base- use primary caregiver (mother) as secure base when exploring. iv. Formation of Reciprocal Relationship (18months- 2yrs & on)- rapid growth in representation & language enables toddlers to understand some factors that influence parent’s coming & going and predicting their return. Separation protest declines and children negotiate with caregiver (requesting from the child and persuading from the parent to alter goals and letting the child know where parents will be; “going to dinner & we will return after you go to sleep”). b. Internal Working Model is influenced from having a secure base (parents) and early caregiving experiences that overall guides our future relationships. i. Parent’s internal working models: The way you (as a child) remember being attached affects how your children attach to you and effects the way you respond (how clear, coherent, & consistent) to your own children. When asked about attachment, its important to remember how the attachment was (loving/caring) and NOT how you were actually attached (a lot of time spent). This is a good predictor of infant attachment patterns. Parent’s childhood experiences dot NOT transfer directly to quality of attachment with their own children!! c. Strange Situation measures the attachment patterns of a child between 1-2 yrs. It’s in a laboratory setting where researchers observe infants with their parent. Parent would leave the room and a stranger would come in, the stranger would then leave and the parent would come back in the room. How the child would explore confidently when the parents were with them compared to when they left and came back was observed. Cultural conditions must be considered in interpreting the meaning of attachment patterns. i. Securely Attached- child uses the parent as a secure base, has a mild protest when the parent leaves, and when the parent returns the infant has a positive interaction. 1. Secure babies in middle SES families with favorable life conditions more often maintain their attachment pattern than insecure babies ii. Insecure Avoidant- child would avoid the caregiver at all times. The infant was not distressed when the parent left the room, did not reestablish contact when the parent returned, and when picked up the infant does not cling to parent. iii. Insecure Resistant- child clings to caregiver and does not explore, when the parent left the room infant cried loudly, and when parent returned child pushes parent away (an act of being mad at them for leaving). iv. Insecure Disorganized/Disoriented- babies appear dazed or disoriented, when parents leave the room they are confused and fearful, and they show avoidance/resistance when the parent returns. 1. This pattern of attachment is highly stable; will last d. Attachment Q-Sort- is based on home observations of children between 1-5 yrs; yields a score ranging from low to high security. e. Attachment Security is influenced by early availability of consistent caregiver, quality of caregiving, fit between the baby’s temperament & parenting practices, and family circumstances. Does attachment matter? Yes, there is some connection between infant attachment & later development for some children. It also, reflects a positive parent/infant relationship and provides a foundation for healthy emotional development over the lifespan. i. Sensitive caregiving (consistent/warm) is moderately related to promote secure attachment. ii. Interactional Synchrony (the caregiver’s response to infant signals in a well-timed/appropriate manner). Western cultures characterize the experiences of securely attached babies. iii. Mothers of insecure babies tend to be unavailable or rejecting; they’re mad or irritated when they interact with their babies & not very affectionate. Infants play a role in the kind of attachment relationship they have with their mother. Babies with a difficult temperament are more likely to be insecurely attached; BUT with goodness of fit (environment), any temperament of the child can change to a secure attachment with their parents by having them adjust their caregiving. iv. Long term effects: the type of attachment a child receives affects emotional, social, and cognitive development. The more secure a child’s attachment, the easier it is for them to become independent and develop a good relationship with others. Also, they are more social and interact more positively with peers. At 3-5 yrs they are more curious, competent, self- confident, empathetic, and resilient. Around the age of 8, they have increased communication skills, cognitive engagement, and have mastered motivation. Insecure attachment kids, have inhibitions around age 2 and hostility towards other children at age 5. Also, they have dependency during the school years and later in life tend to have family crisis. v. Mom vs. Dad Parenting- infants develop strong affectionate ties to fathers, who tend to engage in more exciting, physical play than do mothers. Some fathers devote little time to infant care and play is a vital context in which fathers and babies build a secure attachment. 5. Self Development a. implicit self awareness (infants being physically distinct from their surroundings) expand to explicit self awareness (self recognition and being consciously aware of self’s physical features) around age 2. b. Scale errors- toddlers attempting to do things their body size makes impossible c. Toddlers begin to show empathy (appreciating others’ perspectives) which is due to self awareness d. They also develop a categorical self, classifying themselves and others on the basis of age, sex, physical characteristics, and competencies. e. Self awareness contributes to gains in self control. CHD 2220 Chapter 8: Physical Development in Early Childhood -Handedness -Influences on growth and health -Psychosocial dwarfism -Sleep Habits -Nutrition (encouraging good nutrition) -Childhood Injuries (prevention) 1. Body Growth a. Height and Weight- gains in body size taper off early in childhood as children become longer and leaner. Individual differences in body size and rate of growth are
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