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Lecture Notes Rock cycle

by: Alexa Cortez

Lecture Notes Rock cycle Geol 1330

Alexa Cortez

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Rock Cycle notes. all materials on exam
Physical Geology
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Cortez on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 1330 at University of Houston taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in life & physical science department at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Physical Geology 1330 Dr. Mike Murphy 336-S&R-1 Lecture 1 Today’s Outline  What is Geology?  Why is Geology important?  What is Science? What is Geology­ The scientific study of the processes, events, and consequences of  the Earth’s past, present, and future. Physical Geology examines Earth materials and seeks to understand the many  processes that operate on our planet. Why is geology important? 1. Formation of Earth’s landscape’s 2. Exploration of natural resources  3. Mitigating geologic hazards 4. Understanding environmental change 5. Evolution of the planet and life on Earth What are some geologic hazards? Volcanoes­ Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, Cali. Earthquakes and Tsunamis­ Cali, Washington, Oregon Floods­ Texas, Louisiana, Florida, North and South Carolina, etc Landslides­ Cali, Washington, Oregon Why is it necessary to understand the Earth’s history? 1. Origin and evolution life 2. Formation of natural resources 3. Effects of geologic hazards 4. Evolution of other planets  5. Climate change   What is Science? Theory of plate tectonics as an example of science Observations:  (1) Landforms and continents fit together across oceans (e.g Africa and South America). (2) Fossils are the same on continents that are now separated 100’s to 1000’s of miles  apart.  (3) Mountain ranges bordering continents with similar rocks across oceans  Hypothesis: Continents were once connected together, forming one continent called  Pangea, 200 million years ago Pangea broke up into plates. Since then, plates  (continents) shifted to their present configuration.    Definition of Science­ 1. A body of knowledge related to the study of natural phenomenon. 2. Application of the Scientific Method – process of gathering facts through  observation, formulates hypotheses that explain observations, then evaluate  hypotheses by testing predicted outcomes. What is hypothesis?   Statement designed to EXPLAIN a set of observations.  The best hypothesis explains ALL existing observations.  Able to PREDICT observations –i.e be testable.  FALSIFIABLE­ i.e there must be the possibility it could be proven WRONG. How do you test a hypothesis?  Collect data that are predicted by the hypothesis.  If data are inconsistent with the prediction, hypothesis is abandoned.  If data are consistent with the prediction, then hypothesis is valid.  Repeated Verification of a hypothesis may result in formation of a THEORY. What is a theory?  “A well tested and widely accepted view that scientists agree best explains  certain observational facts.”  Like the hypothesis, it is testable.  All theories are provisional.  Theories are the end points of science. There is no scientific statement stronger  or more widely accepted than a theory! Physical Geology 1330   Dr. Mike Murphy Lecture 2                         336­S&R­1                                          Today’s Outline  Origin of the Earth  Internal Structure of the Earth  The Rock Cycle Nebular Hypothesis –  –Rotating cloud called the solar nebula –Composed of Hydrogen and Helium   –Nebula began to contract about 5 billion years ago A.  B. C. D. E.  Formation of the Moon Sources of Earth’s Heat 1.Collisons­> heat  2.Compression­> heat  3.Radioactivy­> heat  Creation of a layered Earth – `Chemical Differentiation Internal Structure of the Earth – Compositional layers­ Crust­Mantle­Core Crust­ Outermost layer compositional layer Oceanic­3­15 km­thick (basalt) ave density ~ 3.0 g/cm3 Continental­ 20­70 km­thick (granite) ave density ~ 2.7 g/cm3 Mantle­82% of the earths volume, upper and lower mantle density ranges between > 3.3  < 11g/cm3 Core­Iron and nickel, density ~ 11g/cm3  Mechanical Layers­ Strength of earth materials is a function of composition,  temperature, and pressure. Lithosphere – (Sphere of rocks, ridge) 100­250 km thick­ including crust and the  uppermost solid mantle  Asthenosphere – (Weak Sphere) located in the upper most mantle Lower Mantle – More rigid because increase in pressure  Upper Mantle­ weak (fluid) Outer Core –Fluid Inner Core ­ Solid Three Rock Types ­ The geologic process that act to transform one rock type into another Igneous – Form from magma Sedimentary –form from segment   Metamorphic –form from pre­existing rocks   The nature of Earth has been a focus of study for centuries  Catastrophism – Earth’s landscapes were shaped primarily by catastrophes  Uniformitarianism – the physical, chemical, and biologic laws that operate  today have operated throughout the geologic past  The Rock Cycle – ** Moho­ inner face between the crust and the mantle 


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