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Lecture notes

by: Alexa Cortez

Lecture notes Geol 1330

Alexa Cortez

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Physical Geology
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Cortez on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 1330 at University of Houston taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in life & physical science department at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Physical Geology 1330                 Dr. Mike Murphy PLATE TECTONICS 1. A model explaining how the Earth works.  2. A set of ideas explaining the observed motion of Earth’s lithosphere through the  mechanisms of subduction and seafloor spreading, which in turn, generate Earth’s  major features, including continents and ocean basins. Seven Major Plates are recognized: 1. North American, .2 South American, 3. Pacific, 4. African, 5. Eurasian, 6. Australian, 7. Antarctic Plate Boundaries – Three main types: Divergent Boundary – where plates move apart, resulting upwelling of material from  the mantle to create new seafloor Convergent Boundary – where plates move towards one another resulting in the subduction (consumption) of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle. Transform Boundary – where plates slide past each other without the production or  destruction of lithosphere. Divergent Plate Boundaries Convergent Plate Boundaries Transform Plate Boundaries Forces Driving Plate Motion Physical Geology 1330   9/7 Igneous Rocks – form from crystallization of a magma 1. Intrusive igneous rocks 2. Extrusive igneous rocks Crystallization 1. Generation or precipitation of mineral grains  2. As magma cools, random movements of ions     slow and arrange themselves into orderly     crystalline structures.    Magma ­ molten rock that contains melt, suspended         crystals, and dissolved gases:  Water vapor (H2O) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) **Magma may be generated in two ways: 1. Heat rocks above their melting point  2. Lower melting point by: a. Decreasing pressure  b. Adding volatiles (e.g. H2O) Geothermal Gradient – the change in temperature with depth. –30 degrees cenergrate/cm The steep part of the next picture is generated by result of continental (heat) in the mantle  The top  The bottom part is mixing vibration Melting Curve – minimum temperatures at specific depths required to melt a rock. Fractional Crystallization (magmatic differentiation) The modification of magma by crystallization and removal of minerals. Because only certain elements will go into a given mineral, this will tend to change the  composition of the remaining liquid. Assimilation – changing of a magma’s composition by incorporating surrounding rocks bodies.   Magma Mixing – combining two compositionally distinct magmas.   Bowen’s Reaction Series – Sequence of mineral crystallization from a cooling silicate  (basaltic) magma.   Discontinuous Reaction Series ­    Olivine             Pyroxene                Amphibole                Biotite Continuous Reaction Series ­   Ca­rich Plagioclase                             Na­rich Plagioclase Description of Igneous Rocks Texture – size shape arrangement of crystals  Composition – chemical or mineral components Factors Controlling Texture of Igneous Rocks –  Rate of cooling (most important) Amount of silica present Amount of dissolved gases Types of Igneous Textures –  1.Aphanitic (fine­grained) – Individual crystals too small to be seen by the unaided eye 2. Phaneritic (Coarse­grained)­ individual crystals CAN be seen by the unaided eye 3.Porphyritic­ large crystals (Phenocrysts) in a finer­grained matrix (groundmass) 4.Glassy­ lacks a crystalline structure because of rapid cooling 5.Vesicular­ contains abundant elliptical cavities formed gas bubble trapped in the rock Forms of Intrusive Rock Bodies  Plutons can be divided into 2 groups  1) concordant Sills Laccoliths 2) discordant Dikes  batholith


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