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Matter and minerals Lecture notes

by: Alexa Cortez

Matter and minerals Lecture notes Geol 1330

Alexa Cortez

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Physical Geology
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Cortez on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 1330 at University of Houston taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in life & physical science department at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Physical Geology 1330  Matter and Minerals  Mineral: Building of rocks, naturally occurring, inorganic solid, ordered internal molecular structure,  definite chemical composition Rock: A naturally occurring consolidated mixture (or aggregate) of minerals  Fig. 3.4 Periodic Table of the Elements  Element ­ A substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical or  mechanical means  Atom ­ The smallest individual particle that retains the properties of an element.  Atomic Structure­ central region called the nucleus, consists of protons(+charge) and neutrons ( neutral  charge) Proton – positive charge Neutron – Neutral charge Electron – Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus in the electron cloud, located in  spherically energy clouds Valence electrons = electrons in outermost shell hat interact with other atoms to form chemical  bonds Ion ­ charged atoms Cation – positive charge Anion – negative charge  Ionic Size –   Types of Chemical Bonds  1.Ionic – atoms gain or lose outermost (valence) electrons to form ions, ionic compunds consist  of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions Halite (NaCl)­ an example of ionic bonding 2.Covalent Bond –  Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality, generally stronger than ionic bonds, both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound  3.Metallic Bond – Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms, weaker and less common  than other bonds Atomic Number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Atomic Mass (Weight) – the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotopes – elements with the same atomic number but different atomic masses Physical Properties of Minerals  Crystal Form – the external expression of a mineral’s orderly internal arrangement of atoms Luster – appearance of a mineral in reflected light – 2 basic categories: metallic and nonmetallic­ order descriptive terms include vitreous, sliky, or earthy  Color – generally unreliable for mineral identification­ often highly variable due to slight  changes in mineral chemistry­ exotic colorations of certain minerals produce gemstones  Streak –color of a mineral in its powders form Hardness – resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching­ all minerals are compares to a  standard scale called the mohs scale of hardness Cleavage – Tendency to break alone plane of weak bonding­ produces flat, shiny surfaces­  described by resulting geometric shapes (number of planes and angles between adjacent planes) Fracture –a break in a mineral that does not correspond to a layer of weak bonds 3 types:  Conchoidal­ smooth curves surfaces Fibrous­ like splinters  Irregular­ no particular shape or pattern Specific Gravity –the ratio of the weight of the mineral to the weight of an equal volume of  water­ it is a dimensionless measure of density   Silicate structures  Polymerization – the SiO tetr4 edra can link to one another in a variety of configurations  Independent tetrahedral­  Single chains­Narrow, tall, and long (ex: proxene) Double chains­Wide, not tall (ex: amphilbole) Sheet structures­ Strong bonds (ball), weak bonds (lines connecting 1 ball to another) there is 1  weak bond (they are parallel)  Three­dimensional framework­  The Si­O tetrahedron – can form single chains, double chains, and street structures Study this picture      Polymorphs ­ minerals with the same composition but different crystalline structures ­ examples include diamond and graphite o Phase change = one polymorph changing into another *Muscovite and biotyte both know as mica  Review questions 7) Which of the following is the definition for a scientific hypothesis? A) the gathering of data through ovservations  B) A tentiative explanation used to explain observed actives C) A well­tested and widely accepted view that explains observed activites D) An educated guess 15) What caused our solar nebula to contract and spin, eventually creating the planets? A) Gravitational interactions between particles B) Gravitational attraction from black holes C)Nuclear fusion joining atomic particles D) Solar winds from nearby stars 17) What is the definition of Planetary differentiation (Chemical Differentiation)? A) Separation of materials based on density. B) Categorization based on chemical formulas  C) Mixing of materials to produce a new compound D) Divisions of planets based on constituent materials  35) which of the following rocks will be most buoyant on the Earths mantle? Rock A: density 1.4 g/cm3 Rock B: density 5.6 g/cm3 Rock C: density 5.1 g/cm3 Rock D: density 2.7 g/cm3 44)which of these statement best describes the lithosphere? A) the lithosphere is the layer in the interior of the Earth that is just below the crust  B) the lithosphere is composed of the crust and the rigid part of the upper mantle. C) the lithosphere is a low­density part of the upper mantle D) the lithosphere consists solely of the crust 33) continents have a density of ___ and are made of ___ rock. A) 1.9 g/cm3 s D) 34) the rock  C) Questions that would be on the test Amphilbole or Pyroxene? (look at pictures on lecture slides) What are the angles between the slides (faces) of the mineral?  Pyroxene ( 90 degrees perpendicular) Amphilbole (less than 60 degrees)


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