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PSY 270 Chapter 4 notes

by: Samantha Grissom

PSY 270 Chapter 4 notes PSY 270

Samantha Grissom
GPA 3.76

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About this Document

These are the notes we took on the birthing process and new born baby testing, reflexes, and senses.
Child Psychology
Class Notes
Newborn, fetus, baby, birth, maternal, paternal, senses, reflexes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Definitions Examples Important Information PSY 270 Chapter 4: Birth and the Newborn Baby So what is childbirth really like? Birthing Process: ­ Braxton Hicks contractions­ false labor ­ Onset of labor: 1) Prostaglandins 2) Fetal hormones 3) Pituitary gland releases oxytocin to inforce contractions ­ 3 stages of labor 1) First stage (16­20 hours) ­ Longest stage  ­ Contractions ­ Dilation of the cervix (10 cm/4 inches) and effacement ­ Amniotic sac bursts (“my water broke”) ­ Monitoring of the fetus by measuring the diameter of the mother’s belly ­ Transition of the baby to the birth canal 2) Second stage (90 minutes) ­ Crowning­ the first sight of the baby; when the baby’s head reaches the  vagina ­ Delivery ­ Baby’s facial features are distorted due to small space, but will “bounce”  back ­ Clearing of the baby’s airways ­ Umbilical cord is clamped and cut ­ Newborn procedures (fetal pricks to test blood, antibiotics, etc.) 3) Third stage (less than 30 minutes) ­ Passing the remaining tissues and placenta Methods of Childbirth: 1) Anesthesia ­ General­ putting the mother to sleep for delivery ­ Local­ numbing a certain area of the body (epidural) 2) Hypnosis ­ Focusing on relaxing scenes or decreasing muscle tension to distract the  mother from the trauma of childbirth 3) Biofeedback ­ Giving the mother a constant stream of information concerning bodily  functions 4) Prepared Childbirth ­ Using breathing or relaxation exercises from maternity classes or using social  support from a spouse, family member, or friend 5) Cesarean section (C section) ­ Cutting open the abdomen and uterus to retrieve the baby ­ Usually used when there is a health threat to the mother, baby, or both 6) Homebirth ­ Exactly what it sounds like ­ Safe for low risk pregnancies Birth is great an all but there are serious complications Complications of childbirth: ­ C section is just all sorts of complicated 1) Oxygen deprivation ­ Causes: ­ Maternal disorders ­ Immature respiratory systems ­ Accidents, such as the umbilical cord wrapping around the baby’s neck ­ Effects: ­ Central nervous system development is impaired ­ Cognitive and motor functions compromised ­ Schizophrenia and cerebral palsy 2) Preterm infants (less than 38 weeks) ­ Low birth weight (less than 5.5 lbs) ­ Small for date weight (less than 5.5 lbs at full term) ­ Very low birth weight (less than 2.75 lbs at 30 weeks in womb) ­ Low birth weight causes low scores in neurological, cognitive, and motor testing ­ Babies weighing between 3.25 and 5.5 lbs are 7x more likely to die ­ Babies born weighing less than 3.3 lbs are 100x more likely to die 3) Development after birth ­ Babies can become less social and more passive if born premature ­ Skin to skin contact (kangaroo care) is important and necessary for development ­ Sex differences (girls catch up faster than boys when born prematurely) There are even diseases that affect babies much later than birth Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): ­ disease in which infants die unexpectedly and to unknown causes ­ 13% of deaths in infants are from SIDS ­ no prevention ­ SIDS correlates with certain factors: ­ 2­4 months­olds ­ Sleeping on his/her side ­ Males ­ Premature babies ­ Bottle­fed infants ­ Babies born to teen moms ­ Maternal smoking or drug use during pregnancy ­ Children’s Hospital at Boston study concluded that the medulla is less sensitive to  serotonin, which helps to wake people up, and males are less sensitive to serotonin in  general. ­ Recommendations to “prevent” SIDS: 1) Put babies to sleep on his/her back 2) Put them to sleep in the same room but not in the same bed 3) No loose sheets or items in bed 4) Breastfeed 5) Do not use products claiming to prevent SIDS 6) Make sure the baby isn’t too hot How do we know if the baby is healthy? APGAR scale: ­ A 0­10 scale that tests the physical health of a baby 1­5 minutes after birth ­ measures Appearance (skin tone), Pulse, Grimace (reflexes), Activity (muscle tone),  Respiration ­ 0­3 = immediate care is necessary ­ 4­6 = needed assistance ­ 7­10 = good A competent baby has reflexes, senses, a capacity to learn, and precursors to social interaction Reflexes: ­ Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in response to stimuli ­ Reflexes that disappear over time: 1) Moro­ when a baby stretches out its limbs and draws limbs back towards his/her  body 2) Babinski­ the baby’s reflex of stretching its toes in response to a tickle on the sole  of his/her foot 3) Stepping­ a baby’s walk­like motion when picked up and his/her feet are placed  lightly on a flat surface ­ Reflexes that are replaced by voluntary actions: 1) Sucking 2) Rooting­ when the baby turns its head toward whatever brushes it’s cheek in  preparation for sucking 3) Grasping  ­ Reflexes that remain until adulthood: 1) Breathing 2) Blinking  What do babies understand when they’ve just left the womb? ­ They already have a social competency 1) They can discriminate between facial expressions 2) Can imitate movements and expressions 3) The sound of crying triggers a physiological response in those who hear it  (especially the mothers) ­ Their senses are already developed or actively developing at a quick pace. 1) Vision (least developed) ­ Sees 7­9 inches from the face ­ Low sharpness; differentiation by shades and shadows ­ Low peripheral vision ­ Low focus and control of eye movements (accommodation and  convergence); mainly tracks movement ­ Unsure whether babies’ color vision is developed but tests show that  babies focus on highly contrasting colors 2) Hearing ­ Ability developed in the womb ­ Sharpness of sound isn’t the greatest ­ Babies prefer their mom’s voice ­ Babies are able to discriminate between languages for the first few months but learn the basic phonemes for the language they hear most. 3) Smell ­ Can distinguish between odors like adults and prefer smells similar to the  preferences of adults ­ Prefers mother’s smell above all 4) Taste (well developed) ­ Prefers sweet tastes ­ Distinguishes between tastes (babies can distinguish their mother’s  breastmilk out of a group) 5) Touch (well developed) ­ Most reflexes are in response to touch ­ It is debated whether babies have a lower pain sensitivity or a low memory retention of pain What happens to the mother after she gives birth? Postpartum Period: 1) Baby blues ­ 70% of women experience this after childbirth ­ Symptoms: ­ Tearfulness, sadness, or irritability ­ Hormonal changes 2) Postpartum depression ­ 10­20% of women experience this after childbirth ­ Symptoms: ­ Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness ­ Changes in appetite or sleep 3) Psychotic periods ­ Less than 1% of women experience this after childbirth ­ May include suicidal thoughts or thoughts of killing the baby ­Counseling or social support help ease and cure both baby blues and postpartum depression  after a period of time Well that’s sad but what happens if the mother doesn’t experience that? Postpartum Bonding: ­ Formation of bonds of attachment between the parents and child ­ Mixed evidence debates the effects of contact in immediate postpartum hours or delayed  contact ­ Depression delays bonding, but bonds can eventually be formed ­ Father’s bonding can be affected by: 1) Relation between him and the mother 2) His psychological well­being


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