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Happiness Wednesday 9/14

by: McKenna Miller

Happiness Wednesday 9/14 PHIL0650/CLPS0710

McKenna Miller
Brown U
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

Adaptation level theory (ALT), Expecation, Comparison, Diener's Hypothesis, Subliminal Shock Experiment.
The Philosophy and Psychology of Happiness
Joachim Israel Krueger, Bernard Reginster
Class Notes
Adaptation, level, Theory, expectation, diener, subliminal, ALT




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Miller on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL0650/CLPS0710 at Brown University taught by Joachim Israel Krueger, Bernard Reginster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Philosophy and Psychology of Happiness in Philosophy, Psychology at Brown University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
HAPPINESS Wednesday, September 13th very little is needed for a happy life, it is mainly dependent on your state of mind Taking a walk=happy body=happy mind - study on employees Adaptation level theory (ALT) - Receptors adapt quickly to drugs, codeine for example: the first time it is used, it is a very wonderful happy feeling, second time might just relieve some pain, third time, might have little affect - Adaptation leads to addiction: High cravings but little satisfaction when you give into . m e h t Skydiving: at first you feel fear, as it goes away, you begin to feel happy. A habit of skydiving may allow you to enjoy it more and more each time because you experience less fear. Contrast and habituation effects: contrast requires a second stimulus; habituation does not Self stimulation: tickling is a mix of pleasure and pain, you cannot do it to yourself, however masturbation is an exception. Trends in ALT - Psycho physics: stimulus theories vs frame of reference theories - Expectancy effects in Brickman’s results: perhaps, but not part of AL - Example stimulus theory: marginal utility theories: the more you feel happiness, the more stimulus is required in the future to achieve the same results. - Example Frame theory: prospect theory Study: gave people a weight and asked them how much it was. Then switched to a lighter/ heavier weight and compared the results. Shows that estimation/feeling is relative/ comparative. Aside from present context, the organism has a functional zero point, which is referred to as “the norm”. New stimuli are judged relative to that. In a novel judgement task, the first stimulus is the anchor, and it establishes the norm Simultaneous exposure & contrast effect (circle surrounded by big/small circles example, Ebbinghaus illusion) Subliminal schock experiment -mice and humans were split into 2 groups, one group given a shock to the hand that they could not feel or knew existed. The other group was not administered the shock. the group that did experience the subliminal shock reported a more painful experience when a second, more intense shock was administered. Contrast effect with months/temperatures - we assume that september is cooler than august, but the changing of the months really depends on the phases of the moon, not the temperature. People exaggerated temperature changes when the time period crossed month boundaries. Evidence: Low correlation between happiness and money, health, physical attractiveness rated by others. HAPPINESS Diener’s revisions: Individual differences in set point: everyone should be at the same neutral point according to strict AL Non neutral set points: Most people are on the good side of the happiness scale (skewed left) Subdomains with different set points: within individual Circumstances Matter: variation over nations, slow adaptation after some major life events (widowhood or divorce are good examples) Individual differences in speed of adaptation Allen Parducci “the happy life is one in which the best of whatever is experienced comes relatively often” Range principle: Parse space into equally wide categories Frequency principle: Parse the stimuli into equally large categories relates to consumerism: we start off happy with little, as we gain more and more, we acquire a need and want for more and more to create more “peak experiences” On the flip side: if you have a very bad experience, and come out of it ok, it allows simpler things to make you happier.


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