Psych 2301 Chapter 2 Notes
Psych 2301 Chapter 2 Notes Psyc 2301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailey Mathews on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2301 at West Texas A&M University taught by W staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at West Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 2- Role of Biology in Psychology Remember, the definition of psychology: the scientific study of behavior, mental activity, and their underlying biological basis. *This study cannot be done by omitting the first two aspects of this study and skipping solely to the underlying biological basis. *Misconception: “In time psychology will just become biology” There is no single case that biology alone can account for everything going on behavior is predictable inter-trial interval (recall a sequence of digits consecutively in between a certain amount of seconds) What happens to you influences your nervous system and what happens to your nervous system influences you (two-way arrow) o Environmental things change the nervous system that we can actually see in the cortex development Neurons have to have Oxygen and Sugar to survive, so when they are not receiving adequate blood flow there becomes an emergency. o Body will start to heal itself o Medicine will help healing process o Psychology deals with the behavioral aftermath of traumatic occurrences Neurons have to connect or they die If they don’t find the connection the immune system removes them Stimulation in the environment connect these neurons What you are doing and exposed to, influences how the neurons are wired up o Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy can rework the nervous system to increase recently lost mobility 2.1 How Do Our Nervous Systems Interact with Thinking and Behavior? A network of billions of cells in the brain and the body, responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do Can be up to 1,000 cells that can affect one single cell. The number of connections the nervous system can make, is bigger than the amount of molecules in the world We know more about the solar system than we know about the thing comprehending the solar system ….. that thing is the human brain The nervous system has three basic function? 1. Receive sensory input from the world through vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell (the five senses) Coded in on/off signals (example: quality of a singing voice, or light and color perception) 2. Process the information in the brain by paying attention to it, perceiving it, and remembering it (dealing with, bringing meaning to, processing, and interpreting with the information received from the five senses) *the smart neurons* 3. Respond to the information by acting on it (responding, output) *This creates the behavioral triangle* 1 White Neurons are dumb neurons… the act simply as 2 cables Grey Neurons are smart neurons… they process 3 No Physical state line…. The nervous system is not really divided but for our convenience we impose boundaries on the nervous system… (the brain and spinal cord is two parts two us but it is actually all one thing) Central nervous system #2 of triangle is dominate Peripheral nervous system #1, #3 of triangle is dominate Peripheral Nervous System- Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System o Sympathetic Nervous System o Parasympathetic Nervous System Neurons- Electrical between cells Studying the neurons of frog legs resulted in the production of the battery Dendrites- the antenna, they receive signals from the body Axon- sends information When action potential reaches the threshold value then and only then does the neuron fire Myelin Sheath- off white color composed of fat that wraps around the axon of the neuron in segments o Acts as insulator o Does not conduct electrical currents o Analogy: skipping tocks- once rock break surface they fall, if it is skipped across the water it travels very quickly o Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is caused by a lack of myelin sheaths o Information of neurons originated from studying squid Synapse- Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse space and bind to the receptors for these neurotransmitters Excitatory and Inhibitory signals o Postsynaptic neurons can produce signals of two types: Excitatory- they increase the likelihood that it will fire (accelerator) Inhibitory signals -inhibit the neuron-they decrease the likelihood that it will fire (breaks) Age 3 is when children can stop and think about options… Inhibitory signals first seen in children If you ingest something that makes you think or feel differently in takes place as an inhibitory factor within the synapse 2.2 How Do the Parts of Our Brains Function? To truly understand how we see, hear, remember, interact with others, and sometimes experience psychological disorders, we need to understand the structure of the brain Broca’s Area- Speech motor control Spinal Cord- Contains smart parts Number 2 in the triangle Grey matter on the inside (unmyelinated neurons) Known as reflexes Hindbrain- Survival functions Midbrain- Movement Proportionally small Forebrain- biggest proportion of human brain Cerebellum- coordination motor learning (driving a car) Substantia Nigra- visual and auditory processing Cerebral cortex- about 9 square feet is folded to fit into smaller areas yet increasing surface area major involvement with number 2 triangular function *Cortex means bark (thin outer layer)* *Subcortical below the surface* Basal ganglia- involved with movement Hypothalamus- regulates the pituitary gland homeostatic Thalamus- sensory gateway Hippocampus- (means horse) Two cerebral hemispheres, not connected until the Corpus callosum o A cable that helps both hemispheres communicate 2.3 How Do Out Brains Communicate with Our Bodies? The peripheral nervous system has two primary components o The somatic nervous system o The autonomic nervous system Somatic Nervous System A part of the peripheral nervous system; this part transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints “What I am touching and how my body responds to those things” sides 1 and 3 of triangle Autonomic nervous system A part of the peripheral nervous system; this part transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body’s glands and internal organs Two subdivisions: o The sympathetic Energizes “fight or flight” prepares you for an emergency shuts down digestion/increases respiration and heart rate o The parasympathetic Returns body to resting state Heart rate and respirations return to normal Digestion increases Endocrine system A communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts and actions Slower system Hormones Chemical substances, released from endocrine glands, that travel through the blood stream to targeted tissues; the tissues are later influenced by the hormones Plasticity A property of the brain that causes it to change through experience, drugs, or injury o Plasticity reflects the interactive nature of a biological and environmental influences o “It’s always a two way street” *Neurons that fire together wire together*
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