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Newton and Kepler

by: Alexandra Wendling

Newton and Kepler AST 1002-Section 3

Alexandra Wendling

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Law of gravity notes Formulas
Planets, Stars and Galaxies
Vladimir Dobrosavljevic
Class Notes
Astronomy 101
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Wendling on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AST 1002-Section 3 at Florida State University taught by Vladimir Dobrosavljevic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Planets, Stars and Galaxies in Science at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Lecture  9/7/2016 Cosmological Principle 1. Law of nature is same everywhere Observation Tools: powers of ten (our planet is 10,000 km) 1 mile=1.6 km 1 km= 1000 meters Proxima Centauri 1. closest star to us (next to the sun) Proxima means close and centauri means constellation (shaped like cursive L) ((alpha  centauri) Light year  One light year = 10^13 km Light year covered by light in 1 year Distance to nearby stars is 10 light year Night sky We can’t see the stars during the day because of the ozone layer and sun (the sky is blue  because of the air) During the night time, we can see  1. Stars 2. Planets 3. International Space Station (ISS) 4. Comets Map of the sky “Cellestial Sphere” Lecture  9/7/2016 Celestial sphere­ apparent sphere of the sky Celestial equator­ projections of earth’s equator Celestial poles­ axis of rotation  Ecliptic­ annual path of the sun as projected onto the celestial sphere Motions in the sky 1. Stars 2. Planets 3. Comets 4. Moon Constellation­ groups of stars that appear close to each other Stars move from east to west The north star never moves Altitude of Polaris is always the same as what you’re latitude is. (if you wanna look for polaris  just measure out degrees ((a fist= 10 degrees and finger is one degree))) Zodiac­ The sun visits all 12 zodiac area (aka horoscopes) Seasons are due to tilt of earth’s axis Equator is 12 hours of day/night Summer solstice­ longest day of the year (June 21) Winter solstice­ longest night (december 25)  Vernal equinox­ both exact 12 hours of day and night Autumnal equinox Spins quickly but axis­ “precession”  Brightest star­ Sirius Lecture  9/7/2016 Eclipses vs Phases of Moon Solar eclipse gives a new moon Lunar eclipse gives a full moon Lunar eclipse only happen once or twice a year due to a 5 degree tilt of the moon’s orbit Ancient Astronomy Magellan traveled the world by boat and people figured out the earth is round because things  disappear below the horizon. Erastohenes discovered how big the earth was. He lived in Alexandria in 200 BC. Stars rise in the east and set in the west Planets from west to east Crystal sphere shows what layers the planets are in Aristotle stated that the earth is Geocentric to the crystals in space. Ptolemy used Aristotle’s idea and realized that planets don’t move in a circle, rather a  Retrograde motion.  Ptolemy thought the Mars was moving on an epicycle (a little circle) The deferent is the big circle around earth. But what is at the center of the small circle (epicycle)? NOTHING! Copernicus (1500s) Disovered that all planets go around the sun and that things look like theyre going backwards when u pass them yourself. Heliocentric means the sun is in the center of the system (Ptolemy and Aristotle is wrong) Galileo used the telescope  Phases of venus: Either looks like a full moon or a crescent moon Lecture  9/7/2016 Lecture 4 The Secret Motion of Planets Kepler­ discovered and described how planets move, how they move Newton­ why they move, equations behind it KEPLER Student of a Prince (Tycho de Brache) He observed stars for 20 years Kepler’s II Law: equal areas “roller coaster law” (far from the sun, it’s slower. Closer to the sun,  the comet is faster) Orbital period vs size: Distance in “astronomical units” (1 AV= distance earth­sun) Keplers III Law: P^2 = a^3 The orbits of all planets (comets, asteroids, moons) are all ellipsis. Eccentricity is deviation from the circle Mercury has a bigger eccentricity  Comets have a very large eccentricity  In the middle of the ellipsis it’s slower, and the outside is faster NEWTON What is the force equation? If we know the force, we can describe the motion Law of universal gravitation:  F = Force applied to the object m= mass of the object a = resulting acceleration (rate of change of speed) His three laws: Lecture  9/7/2016 A body stays at rest or in uniform motion unless there is an external force (Law of  Inertia) A body’s motion (velocity) is proportional to the force acting on it (F= m * a) When a body exerts a force on a second body , the second body must exert an equal  force


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