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Cell Bio Week 1

by: Tara Sharif

Cell Bio Week 1 BIOL 213

Tara Sharif
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About this Document

These notes cover three lectures from the first week.
Cell Biology
Dr. Charles Madden
Class Notes
Biology, cellbiology, cellular biology, cellbio




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Sharif on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 213 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Charles Madden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Cellular Biology 213
 Week 1 Lecture 1:
 Chapter 1 What is science? Science is the search for explanations for observed phenomena. Science relies on observations. Scientists come up with logical predictions and conclusions based on their observations.The goal of the scientific process is to discover something that we can consider to be true (to discover facts). There are two types of logic that science relies upon: •Deductive logic -predictions based upon reasoning •Inductive logic -coming up with general concepts from facts and observations that are consistent
 Reducing Bias in Scientific Experiments •Double-blind procedure/study -a study in which different parts of the experiment are hidden from the experimenter so they would not know what results to expect, and would therefore not incorporate any bias into the experiment by expecting a certain outcome from a certain action. For example, In a double-blind experiment, the effectiveness of a medication is being tested. Half the participants are given a placebo (a sugar pill) and the other half are given the actual medication. The placebo and the medication are made to look exactly alike, which prevents both the experimenter and the participants from knowing who is receiving the real medication. If the patients or the experimenter knew which pill was a placebo and which pill was a medication, they may produce inaccurate results caused by their expectations (of course a patient taking a placebo will not feel any improvement because they are not expecting there to be any). •Multi-inistitutional -some journals do not let a scientist publish a study unless they are multi-institutional. They would not let the scientist publish the study if the experiment was conducted by one scientist in one clinic. The journal would require that the study be a collaboration between many different scientists that work in many different institutions. This makes it harder for a scientist to fake or change results to show what they want it to show. If all scientists involved come up with the results that prove the hypothesis, that hypothesis becomes a scientific theory. Keep in mind that not all journals require experiments published to be multi-institutional. Section Vocabulary •Hypothesis -An inference based on observations made. •Scientific Theory -A hypothesis that has been tested many times and has not been found incorrect to date.
 •Double-blind procedure -(see above) •Multi-institutional -(see above) Lecture 2
 Chapter 1 (continued) What Makes Up a Living Thing?
 1. They have the ability to reproduce using DNA or RNA 2. They obtain, store, and use energy by using simple molecules to develop complex ones, and they use these complex molecules to grow and develop 3. They are present in their environment (they interact with their environment). For example, humans interact with their environment by taking in the environment’s oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide into it. 4. They evolve over generations. It is important to remember that individual organisms do not evolve. Populations of that organism evolve over time. (Caused by mutations in genes during reproduction.) 5. They die (for cells, the splitting of one cell into two may count as death because it marks the end of that individual cell) The Basic Unit of Life: The Cell Cell Theory by Schleiden and Schwann 1838: •Cells are the basic physiological and structural units of all organisms. •They can be both individual life forms (single cell organisms) and they can be parts of a more complex being (like us) •Rudoloh Virchow, (1821-1902) said that disease is caused by changes that occur at the cellular level. •All cells come from pre-existing cells (although there must have been an exception at the very beginning) •All cells have a similar chemical makeup •Most chemical reactions that occur in life happen within cells •Whole and complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell reproduction The Genetic Material: DNA •Nothing lives without DNA •Mistakes are always made during replication. These mistakes are called mutations. •Living things use DNA as their genetic material •Viruses are not considered to be “living” Energy and Life •Nothing can live without energy •Living things save their energy by storing it as carbohydrates and lipids (sugars, fats, and oils) •Metabolism -the capability of cells to apply energy and small molecules to maintain itself, grow, and reproduce •Energy -heat, light, and chemical nutrients that receptors can recognize Natural Selection and Evolution •Natural selection relies on variation and mutation in DNA •In a population of bacteria there are variations in antibiotic resistance •Those organisms that are resistant to antibiotics are more likely to survive and even reproduce when the antibiotic is present •Eventually, the entire population will become resistant to the antibiotic Levels of Biological Organization •Prokaryotes -single-celled organisms with no nucleus -Archaea -Most bacteria •Eukaryotes -complex organisms with many cells that contain nuclei -Fungi -Protistans -Plants -Animals Living things are classified according to this order: Domain—> Kingdom—> Phylum—> Order—> Family—> Genus—> Species Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) established how we name living things. The first name is genus and the second name is species. For example, in Homo Sapiens, Homo is the genus and Sapiens is the species. The makeup of complex organisms are as follows: Atoms, Molecules, Cell, Tissue, Organs, Organ System, Organism. Section Vocabulary •Cell Theory •Metabolism •Energy •Prokaryotes •Eukaryotes Chapter 2 Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life •All matter is composed of atoms •The basic structure of an atom: -Protons -positive charge -Neutrons -no charge (neutral) -Electrons -negative charge •Most of the weight of an atom comes from the protons and the neutrons, the electrons have basically no mass. •The mass of one neutron or proton is equal to 1atomic mass unit (amu) or 1 dalton •The mass of one electron is equal to 9 x 10^-31 kilograms which is usually ignored because it is so insignificant •An element is a pure substance that contains only one kind of atom •These elements are arranged on the periodic table of elements where each element is given its own unique chemical symbol •The number of protons an element has is how the element is identified. For example if an atom has two protons, it can be determined that it is an atom of the element Helium. •The atomic number is another way of saying number of protons •The chemical symbol is the abbreviation for the element name. For example, He is the chemical symbol for helium. •The atomic mass is the number of protons + the number of neutrons, so you could find the number of neutrons in an element by subtracting the atomic number from the atomic mass Section Vocabulary •Proton •Neutron •Electron •Atomic mass unit (amu) •Dalton •Element •Periodic table of elements •Atomic number -number of protons •Chemical symbol •Atomic mass Lecture 3 Chapter 2 (continued) All Biological Life is Made Mostly of •Carbon (C) •Hydrogen (H) •Oxygen (O) •Nitrogen (N) Other Elements That Are Good to Know •Calcium (Ca) •Phosphorus (P) •Potassium (K) •Sulfur (S) •Sodium (Na) •Chlorine (Cl) •Magnesium (Mg) •Iron (Fe) The most abundant element in our bodies is hydrogen because our bodies contain lots of water. The most abundant element in our bodies by weight is oxygen because our bodies contain lots of water and hydrogen is very light. The number and the location of electrons will determine how atoms may react. Chemical reactions are changes in the distribution of electrons between 2 or more atoms. Electrons like to organize themselves based on their energy level. They like to fill shells consecutively, and within those shells are orbitals which hold two electrons that like to be paired. Orbitals
 •Orbitals -the locations of electrons in an atom or more specifically, the regions where an electron can be found at least 90% of the time •Orbitals can be characterized by shape and orientation •Orbitals happen in a series called energy levels or electron shells •In the first shell: one s orbital that holds two electrons •In the second shell: one s and three p orbitals that hold eight electrons total •Additional shells: four orbitals that hold eight electrons Chemical Bonds and Interactions •Covalent bond -when atoms share one pair (or more) of electrons, in order to fill their outer shell. Covalent bonds are very strong, so lots of energy would be needed to break them. They are most stable at temperatures in which life exists. Carbon loves to form covalent bonds. Covalent bonds don’t always share their electrons equally. Sometimes one atom in a covalent bond will be more electronegative than the other. For example, in H2O, oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms, so it receives the electron pairs “more often” than the hydrogen. This creates an electrical imbalance, and causes the oxygen to have a slightly negative charge. Therefore, the hydrogen must have less electrons which yields a slightly positive charge, and that is how you get a polar molecule. •Ionic bond -bonding of atoms that are very differently charged. Ionic bonded molecules usually dissolve well in water •Hydrogen bond -is more of an electromagnetic attraction than a typical bond. A common case of a hydrogen bond would be when an oxygen atom in the polar molecule H2O is attracted to a hydrogen atom in another polar molecule of H2O, because the oxygen has a partially negative charge, and the hydrogen had a partially positive charge. Quite weak bond, but when you get a large, complex molecule with hundreds or thousands of hydrogen bonds, it can be a very vital biological bond. These bonds are also important because at body temperature, covalent bonds are very strong and stable. That means they would be hard to break down. But Hydrogen bonds are weak enough that they can be broken down at body temperature. This makes them important in certain processes like the replication of DNA when strands of DNA needs to be separated so they can be replicated. Thanks to hydrogen bonds, it can be done with little energy required. •Hydrophobic Interaction -when an atom with no charge or polarity would rather interact and bond with itself rather than with water. Crucial for forming the phospholipid bilayer. •Hydrophylic interaction -polar molecules that form hydrogen bonds with water. Crucial for forming the phospholipid bilayer. •Van Der Waals interaction -interaction of electrons of non polar substances. Can be an attractive force and can be a repulsive force. •Van Der Waals Forces -attractions between molecules that are non polar, and close together. The individual interactions are short and weak, but cane substantial when it goes on across a large molecule •Compound -a molecule that is made up of two or more elements that are bonded together at a fixed ratio •Molecular weight -the molecular weight of a compound can be found by adding the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule Organic Chemistry •The study of carbon molecules •There is a huge variety of different compounds created with carbon •Carbon is very versatile and can form double and triple bonds with other atoms if those other atoms have electrons to share Section Vocabulary •Isotope -forms of an element that has a different number of neutrons, thus causing it to have a different mass number. •Covalent bond •Ionic bond •Hydrogen bond •Hydrophobic interaction •Hydrophylic molecules -molecules that dissolve in water. Usually will also be a polar molecule •Hydrophobic molecules -molecules that do not dissolve in water. Usually will be a non polar molecule. They are made covalent bonds that share electrons equally •Van Der Waals interaction •Compound •Electronegativity -the attracting force that a nucleus exerts on electrons. The amount of electronegativity will vary depending upon the number of protons and the distance between the nucleus and the electrons. •Orbitals •Cation -a positively charged atom •Anion -a negatively charged atom •Chemical reactions -when atoms collide with enough energy that they combine or change their bonding “partners” •Energy -the capacity to change or do work. It usually changes form during chemical reactions.


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