anthropology notes lectures 1-6
anthropology notes lectures 1-6 ANTH 1000
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Bilek on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher D Berk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Introduction to Anthropology, Dr. Berk Historically anthropology focused on non-Industrial people away from the anthropologist’s country or regions of origins. Cross cultural perspective, discipline, cultures in relation to one another strive to do 2 things (anthropologists) 1. Make the familiar strange 2. Make the strange familiar The nacirema (pseudonym) – North America 1940’s Strange body rituals Purpose and rituals Charms and potions to love Holy mouth men (keep going even though they continue to decay) Women bake heads in small ovens Conception not frequent The American people <- The shrines- bathrooms The charm box- medicine cabinet Holy mouth men- dentists Hog hair bundle- toothbrush The listener- psychologist The latipso temple- hospital 1. Kottak defines anthropology as the study of human species and its immediate ancestors a. Cultural b. Archaeology: looks at artifacts, draws conclusions about social organization, diet, culture shift, among many other things. Ex: Moundville, AL c. Biological/ physical d. Linguistic Study customs, evolution through time, cultures, variations over time and space Anthropologists seek to explain similarities and differences among humans Study society organized life in groups Anthropologists study society and culture Focus is culture 2. Culture is social, not biological We are taught these cultures from birth. These instructions are direct and indirect Called encultured Gender dressing children/ pink are girls, blue are boys Kottack writes about brazil Brazilian women aren’t good at competitive swimming, because swimming means big shoulders and big shoulders aren’t attractive. 3. Anthropology is a holistic discipline 4. Kottack defines holism as the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and the future; biology, society language and culture. 5. Subject matter is “human biological diversity in time and space”. This unit focuses on 5 special interests a. Human evolution as revewaled by the fossil record b. human genetics c. human growth and development d. human biological plasticity (the body’s ability to change as it copes with stress, such as heat, cold and altitude) 6. the biological evolution, behavior and social life as monkeys,apes, and other non human primates 7. primates (biological anthropology) a. bipeds (walks on 2 legs) b. humans are primates c. hominins -> lucy Lecture #2- Ethnographic Fieldwork 1. Quanative vs qualitative a. Quanatative: in depth data from small samples b. Qualitative: number, stats, larger samples 2. Ethnography is based on fieldwork and provides an account of a particular community, society and culture. First hand research. 3. Ethnology is based on cross cultural comparison and examines compares, analyzes and interprets the results of ethnography. Takes work by other people and studies it. 4. Bronislaw Malinowski Father of contemporary anthropology Argonauts of the western pacific Trobriana islands 1914 (WW1) polish national ,got stranded, 1914-1918 in islands 5. Malinowski’s approach a. Cut yourself off from your own kind of people b. Immerse yourself in the social world you’re studying c. Then find patterns, structures, and anatomy of social life d. Fill in details of everyday life, the “imponderabilia” through close observation e. Collect a “corpus insctiptionum” a set of telling examples f. Do all of this in order to “grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, his world, his vision” Anth research based on firsthand, personal study of particular settings 1. Ethnography usually involves a. Long term residence in a community b. Learning a new language c. Developing intimate relationships with people who are unlike you d. Ethnography works through a series of reversals e. Things remote are made to seem nearby, accessible f. Things near to us are made to seem remote, even unattractive g. Otherness is gradually turned into the familiar h. The familiar is turned into otherness 2. Participant observation: take part in the community you’re studying in 3. Rapport: good, friendly working relationships with the people you are working around- trust 4. Key cultural consultations: informants help you get involved in the larger community 5. Gatekeepers: people in office who give you info/ access to top secret info 6. Genealogical method: family trees, who do they live with? How is the marriage arranged? 7. Life history: extended knowledge on someone’s life history 8. Contrasting perspective: compare to your beliefs and perspectives 9. Emic vs Etic a. Emic: local experimental view (within the culture) b. Etic: outsiders perspective, more scientific view c. EX: why do we get sick? Emic-> witches vs. etic-> pathogens, germs 10. Problem oriented: trying to respond to a problem in the area. EX: Diet 11. Longitudinal: long term studies on an area based on repeatedly visiting there, return on a regular basis to look at change over time 12. Team research: your work is part of a team, within different fields of study 13. Multi sided ethnography: conducting research in lots of places on the same study 14. Tasmania, Australia a. Where dr. berk went to study 15. Ethics a. Informed consent: agreement to take part in research after being told what’s happening, rules and why theyre doing it 16. It is appropriate for NA anthropologists working in another country to: a. Include host country colleagues in their research planning and request for funding b. Establish truly collaborative relationships w those collegues and their institutions before and during and after fieldwork c. Include host country colleges in dissemination including publications of the research d. Ensure that something is ‘given back’ to host country 17. Naïve realism: the assumption that everyone does things the same as you 18. Rasta’s story Hannah hung out with rasta’s and made everyone in the village mad Culture 1. Culture: culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by men as a member of society 2. Synonyms w civilization Whole Required 3. Human cultures are dependent on: a. Symbolic communication b. Learning c. The ability to live in groups All 3 of these qualities are rooted in human biology, yet biology alone cannot explain now human cultures, function, interact and change over time. 4. Features of culture a. It is learning b. It is shared c. It shapes and channels nature d. It is symbolic e. It is all encompassing f. It is integrated g. It is adaptive and maladaptive h. It is changing i. It is inclusive and exclusive 5. Anthropologists also recognize cultural systems that are larger and smaller than nation states 6. National culture: football big here, not big outside the US 7. International culture: superhero movies are big everywhere 8. Subcultures: race/ ethnicity, cliques 9. Cross cultural misunderstanding Eating Christmas in the kulahari Shakespeare in the bush 10. Ethnocentrism: similar to naïve realism, tendency to view ones culture as superior and to apply’s one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raising cultures. Ex: papa new Guinea (PNG) 11. Cultural relativism: the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture, It should be understood relative to its own system of meaning. Analytical tool to help think of others 12. Cultural dimensions a. Universality: year round sexuality, share food, incest b. Generality: cross cousin marriage, marriage, transregional language c. Particularity: polygamy many husbands 13. Cultural changes a. Diffusion: borrowing of cultures between cultures Direct vs. indirect st b. Acculturation: ongoing exchange of culture 1 hand contact, both cultures exchange c. Independent invention: humans innovate faced with problems solved them in similar ways d. Globalization and mass mediation 14. Language a. Anthropologists are interested in language human speech and writing because its our primary means of communication b. Language is also a human capacity obviously rooted in biology. We are born with the ability to acquire languages c. Language is the human capacity that most enables us to transcend biology. The complexity of culture, the ability to create cultures and pass them on, is rooted in our languages 15. Distinctive features of languages a. Conventionality: based on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed b. Productivity: the state or quality of producing something c. Displacement: moving something from its place or positions d. Cultural transmission: the way a group of people or animals within a society or culture tend to learn and pass information 16. Nonhuman primate language a. Other primates rely on call systems b. In call systems a particular sound is associated with a particular circumstance c. Calls do not involve displacement. They have a fixed and immediate relationship to what they signify 17. Human language capacity a. So how did the human language capacity evolve? b. FOXP2 gene Human languages capacity has increased and become more and more complex over time Vocalizations became more elaborate The use of symbols became more complex Social environments that depend on these abilities, and encouraged them, emerged 18. Nonverbal communication Human symbols systems are quite complex, even when they are entirely nonverbal Vocalizations and ritual gestures 19. 4 domains of spoken language a. sound uses (phonemes, phenology) b. meaningful combinations of sounds (morphemes, morphology) c. systematic combinations of morphemes into phrases (grammar, syntax) d. meanings derived from the 3 previous domains (semantics) 20. sounds used (phonemes, phonology) a. phonology: the study of speech sounds, it considers what sounds are present and meaningful in a given language b. phonemes: sound contrasts that make a difference. Phonemes are disconcernable sounds and the differences between sounds are what differentiate meaning. c. Minimal pairs: minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differs in only one phonological element Pit/bit, cat/bat, bit/beat (meaning combinations of sounds (morphemes; morphology) d. Morphology: studies how sounds combine to form words a. It focuses on morphemes, whitch are words are their meaningful parts b. Cats, 2 morphemes; cat and a s; (un)woman(ly), (ize/es) (ed) (ing) 21. Social linguistics a. Social linguistics investigates the relationship between social and linguistic variation b. Social linguistics focus on features that vary systematically with sounds, positions and situations Style shifts and dictionary: a situation in which languages (2) varieties of the same language) are used under different conditions within a community, often by the same speaker. Class Gender based on gender if you want to or not Ethnicity: bilingual English and a 2 language Race: black English vernacular. (BEV) stigmatized, viewed negative bc African Americans are viewed badly 22. historical linguistics relationships between languages and groups over space and time protolanguages, daughter languages, subgroups 23. systematic combinations of morphemes into phrases (grammar; syntax) a. syntax: the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences b. Nom Chomsky and universal grammar c. “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” 24. semantics and reality a. semantics: a language’s meaning system b. Sapir Whorf hypothesis: Edwards Sapir and Benjamin Whorf c. Language shapes our perception of reality d. There is no reality we can perceive that exists independently of language Accents 1. Has our language changed our reality or has reality changed our language? 2. We all have accents 3. Matter of perspective 4. Stereotypes by regions a. Regional patterns affect the way we all speak b. Regional dialects contain different phonemes, mainly differences that make a difference 1. Formal vocabulary a. We all have certain terms that don’t transfer within the terms of other groups b. Focal vocabulary: specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important 2. Race and ethnicity a. Ethnicity is based on similarities and differences in a society or nation b. As with any cultural group, ethnic group members often (but not always) share beliefs, values, habits customs, and norms and a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship and or race. c. Ethnicity is inclusive and exclusive d. When an ethnic group is assumed to have a biological basis, its called race e. Race as a biological concept has been wildly discredited f. Culture channels and frames nature, while race might have some basis in biology, it is certainty not wholly based on it g. Race and ethnicity are social constructions h. This does not mean that radical and ethnic groups are simply artificial, inauthentic or the product of flawed thinking. 3. Thomas theoream a. William issac Thomas b. Thomas’s version: “ if men define situations as real, they are not in their consequences” c. Our version: “ if people define a thing to be real, it is real in its consequences” 4. Social construction and real consequences a. This is certaintly true for now humans have reckoned with cultural and physical difference while such beliefs and classifications are social constructions, they have very real consequences. b. Ideologies of difference, whether it is understood as radical or ethnic (or both) have led to conflict and violence c. Such ideologies are fueled by prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination d. Genocide: the mass killing of a certain kind of people nazi Germany, bosnia e. Ethnocide: (settler, colonization) the deliberate and systematic destruction of the culture of an ethnic group.(Native American boarding schools) f. Cultural colonialism: (former soviet union) compromises the cultural aspects of imperialism. g. State: an independent, centrally organized political unit, a government h. Nations as “imagined communities” 5. Capitalism: a system of production and productive relations 6. Print technology (newspapers and novels) 7. The fatility of linguistic diversity (resulting in single national languages) 8. The nation state is a. Imagined b. Limited c. Soverign The management of difference 1. Minority: subordinate groups in a social political hierarchy, with inferior power and less access to resources than majority groups 2. Majority: dominant or controlling groups in a social political hierarchy 3. Social stratification: society’s categorization of people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social stratus or derived power. Ex: apartheid south America 4. Think about how we, as Americans classify people with parents from different groups 5. In the US, offspring of mixed parentage are routinely place in the less prestigious racial minority category, This is known as the rule of hypodescent 6. Assimilation vs. acculturation a. assimilation take in information, ideas and understand fully. Absorb and integrate people, ideas, culture into a wider society or culture b. acculturation: assimilate to different culture, typically the dominant one those who have accultured to the U.S. 7. assimilation is the process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves into an area where another culture dominates. a. The minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it is no longer existing into a separate culture unit. 8. Acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both interacting cultures 9. Assimilation only has that 1 culture that takes over. 10. Metaphors for an American society: a. “melting pot”: heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous the different elements melting together in a harmonious whole with a common culture. EX: immigrants to the US. Works because people want to identify with their ethnic identity because they’re proud of it. b. “tossed salad”: America accepts the differences of families and differences of culture, accepts people’s differences and their rights to be different. 11. Homogenization vs diversity a. Homogenization: to make uniform or similar b. Diversity: a variety, a range of 2 or more different things 12. How to live with ethnic diversity 13. Assimilation: absorb and integrate people, ideas, and culture into a wider society 14. plural society: where groups maintain their ecological/ economic specialization so that completion and antagonism between them is minimized 15. multiculturalism: cultural diversity as desirable and something to encourage (USA and Canada) 16. Race and radical typologies 17. As humans, we tend to understand race as: a. a way of constructing difference within a context of similarity that is universal and natural, it concerns humans as a bilingual species b. defined in relation to some (but not all) physical inheritances (genetic, blood based, substance sharing) c. an endowment “beneath” or “apart from” culture that is typically used to rank populations higher/ lower in their ability to behave culturally d. there are many problems within radical typologies 18. the groupings of physical traits we are use to define races are arbitrary and superficial 19. racial terms are symbolic 20. racial terms are sloppy 21. radical categories are based on phenotypes, not genotypes 22. cross cultural examples of radical thinking 23. the Burakumin of japan 24. race in brazil (CC 22) 25. Ethnicity today is: a. A way of constructing difference within a larger context of similarity that is not universal b. Usually involves mutual recognition of difference and similarity among members of dominant and minority populations in a national context. c. Constantly (re) negotiated from multiple points of view; this process sometimes leads to violence, sometimes to interdependence sometimes to polite avoidance d. Expressed through highly formulate displays of difference which includes narratives (historical, personal) of identity, membership counts, proof of ancestry, and other communal rites of belonging that are designed to fortify the group and link it to a larger society. 26 . Moving forward 27. How do racial and ethnic categories develop? 28. What promotes them or opposes them? 29. In what contexts? 30. Why are some categories recognized and others are not? 31 . Evolution and genetics 32. Our knowledges of genetics and natural selection has developed out of conflicting cosmologies 33 . Cosmologies and evolution 34. Creationism: part of a Biblical worldview, it assumes that God created the universe and all living things. The differences and similarities we see among living things are parts of God’s will 35. Linneaus: the great taxonomer worked within this cosmology 36. catastrophism: developed as an alternative attempt to make sense of the fossil record 37. why is there no record of today’s species in the ancient past? 38. Why do so many ancient species no longer exist today? 39. Perhaps they were destroyed by floods, fires and other natural catastrophes after which God created new species to live alongside surviving species 40. Evolutionism or transformations assumes that existing animal species evolved gradually out of common ancestors. 41. Evolutionists were influenced by Charles (yells geological principle of uniformitarism) 42. Charles Darwin applied this idea to biological diversity 43. Biological diversity can be explained as the cumulative effect of ordinary processes that are occurring today, just as they occurred in the past. 44 . Natural Selection 45. Darwin and Alfred Russet Wallace presented in a joint paper to London’s cinnean society in 1858 46. In this paper they unveiled their theory of natural selection which assumes that: a. There is variation within a population b. There is competition for strategic resources c. Because of particular variations, some organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce than others d. Over time, the less fit organisms are replaced by more adaptive forms 47. Lamarckianism vs Darwinism a. Lamarckianism: the idea that an organism can pas on characteristics that it has acquired during its lifetime to its offspring b. Darwinism: mutations make an organism better adapted to its environment will be encouraged and developed by natural selection c. Lamarck’s view: the earliest ancestor possessed a short trunk d. Throughout continued stretching of the trunk to obtain food, it grew longer, ensuring generations possessed longer trunks **VS** e. Darwin’s view: in a population with short trunked elephants, those individuals with slightly longer trunks obtain more food, therefore leave more off spring f. Many generations later, natural selection has changed the species to an elephant that possesses a long trunk 48. Evolution is sped up and slowed down by environmental change 49. Many paleontologists are returning citing periodic massive extinctions in the fossil record. 50. Genes are located on paired strands of genetic material called chromosomes 51. Each gene determines wholly or in part, a particular biological trait EX: height 52. Alleles: biochemically different forms of a given gene 53. Heterozygous: possessing 2 different alleles of the same gene EX: Tt, tT 54. Homozygous: possessing 2 identical alleles of the same gene (TT,tt) 55. Gregor Mendel (18221884) a. Father of genetics b. Austrian monk who did experiments with pea plants in the 1850s to find out that heredity is determined by discrete individual units, now called genes c. Mendel looked at the inheritance of contrasting traits in pea plants (tall and short ; smooth and wrinkled, green and yellow) 56. Mendel 57. Some traits are dominant, while others are recessive 58. A visible trait, like yellow, can be dominant, while another, green can be recessive 59. Both are based on different combinations of particles that an organism inherits from its parents 60. A dominant trait can be based on different; YY and Yg, and 2 yellow peas can produce green ones depending on how traits combine. Yg*Yg= YY, Yg, gY, and gg 61. Punett Square a. Remember that traits are dominant or recessive. As a result, a dominant trait can be BOTH homozygous or heterozygous Our phenotype does not always match our genotype 62 . Genetics 63. Not all genetic traits are determined by only 2 alleles ex: 2 variable traits Lets consider human blood types, A, AB, B, O 6 genotypes OO, AO, BO, AA, BB, AB 4 phenotypes A, B, AB, O there are fewer phenotypes than genotypes, because O is recessive to both A and B 64. independent assortment and recombination of genetic traits provides one of the main ways by which variety is produced in any population humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, one each from your rather and mother your parents genotypes can produce 2^23 distinct combinations producing 8 million types of siblings 65. Genetic evolution 66. the study of genetics of a population is aptly titled population genetics. 67. Population genetics: studies gene pools, or breeding populations Evolution, in this context is defined as change in allele frequency of gene within a “gene pool” 68 . Mechanism of genetic evolution 69. Natural selection: directional, sexual, stabilizing/ balanced polymorphism 70. Mutation: occur spontaneously 71. Random genetic drift: change regular change in allele frequency that occurs by chance ex: natural disaster 72. Gene flow: exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species 73 . sickle cell a. HB^A is the allele for normal hemoglobin production b. HB^S produces a different hemoglobin sickle cell anemia = HB^SHB^S c. Heterozygotes (HB^AHB^S) prove the most fit in malarial environment d. Offers protection from malaria and sickle cell anemia 74 . Environment, natural selection and human biological adaption a. Blood types and microbes: Certain blood types can cause certain microbes, and can protect you from others b. Smallpox and type A blood: mimics type A blood, so if you have type A blood and get smallpox, your body wont recognize it as foreign and wont attack it. c. Type O blood and bubonic plague: type O blood makes you more susceptible to the bubonic plague d. Type O blood and syphilis: Type O blood makes you immune to syphilis 75. The redistribution of human blood groups appears to represent a compromise among the selective effects of many diseases Our bodies and facial features have adapted to different environments Thomson’s nose rule: Nose length increases in colder and drier climates Bergmanns rule: the smaller 2 bodies similar in shape sheds heat more efficiently Allen’s rule: relative size of protruding body parts increases with average temperature The comforter metaphor: different responses to similar environments: when it is cold, you ball up to decrease your surface area, when it is hot, you stretch out to increase your surface area While our genotype is fixed during our lives, our phenotype can change Phenotypical adaptation: when adaptive changes occur during an individuals lifetime This is made possible by our biological plasticity, namely our ability to change in response to the environments we encounter as we grow Ex: lactose tolerance/ intolerable
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