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Humanistic & Evolutionary Theory | 9-13-16

by: Cynthia Shelby

Humanistic & Evolutionary Theory | 9-13-16 PSY 3350

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Psychology > PSY 3350 > Humanistic Evolutionary Theory 9 13 16
Cynthia Shelby

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About this Document

Book notes from pages 34-41.
The Study of Personality
Joseph Fitzgerald
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cynthia Shelby on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3350 at Wayne State University taught by Joseph Fitzgerald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see The Study of Personality in Psychology at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Humanistic Approach | Evolutionary Theory 9-13-16 | Pgs. 34-41 HUMANISTIC APPROACH The humanistic approach to personality consist of:  Will power  Self-actualization – our tendency to reach our highest potential  Imagination  Creativity  Happiness  Free will  Personal constructs – everyone is different and has their own perception of life; one must understand a person from their current personality  Meaning of life  Life story Abraham Maslow Deficiency needs – viewing a person based on our own frame of reference; if we see something we want from a person, we think of them as “useful”, if that person seems to be withholding things we think we need and want, we say they’re “useless” or “stingy”. We operate from our frame of reference, not seeing people for who they are, only as objects. Being-cognition – the opposite of deficiency needs; we see a person for who they are as a whole, not just as “something”. Being-cognition occurs when we are going through happy experiences. Carl Rogers Phenomenal Field – each person exists in the center of their past and present experiences. In order to understand someone, we must let them reveal their own phenomenal field as they see and understand it. People will take responsibility of their own growth towards healthy functioning. George Kelly Emphasized personal construct; coined the theory of psychology of personal constructs. Constructive alternativism – there are always new and improved ways of matching our constructs to reality. We change our constructs throughout life to match our experiences.  People are big on being able to anticipate the future  Fundamental postulate – our processes are channelized by the way we predict events Self-fulfilling prophecy – assuming and anticipating a certain event will happen; this will influence you to act a certain way for no real reason (only because you created this reason in your head). Your actions will result in the other person acting a certain way in reaction to the ways you are displaying.  Example: you assume a person is mad at you, so you display actions of isolation and avoidance. The person will catch on to your actions and will go off the vibe you’re giving them. Victor Frankl Logotherapy – each person is solely responsible for the meaning the find in living life; being responsible is important; each individual must be able to answer for their own life. Dan McAdams  A persons identity is found within their life story (narratives).  3 levels of personality: 1. dispositions / traits 2. characteristic adaptations (goals and coping strategies) 3. integrating all aspects of ourselves into our life story.  Redemption EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolutionary psychology talks about aspects of human behavior that are universal. There are 2 views on this: View 1  Prefrontal cortex – imagining future scenarios, planning, decision making  Explaining the presence of personality differences.  Variability in traits = traits are not important in the evolutionary aspect of psychology – traits are only random noise.  The end result of natural selection is uniformity of characteristics across individuals within a species, not variability.  Traits do not affect survival and reproduction. View 2  We all have a number of adaptations that help us get along in groups, but a variety (variable) of personality dimension and dispositions. Traits and variability are significant! They do have an influence on reproduction and survival.  Our variability of traits influences how we act and adapt in certain groups. **A good example for comparing both of these views is the movie series “Divergent”. Each person was placed into a group depending on their personality traits. Each group represented specific personalities as a whole. If you were meek and shy, headstrong and a go-getter, or rebellious and moved on your own terms, you were placed into the group that best suited your own traits. So thinking about the movie and the 2 views of evolutionary theory, would you say that traits play a part in survival and reproduction? Life history theory – individual differences inclusive theory. Inclusive fitness theory – the total reproductive success of your entire family (immediate and extended); since siblings share genes, your genes are said to be spread across your whole family, (proving that we all share some sort of the same genes). Conditional adaptations – the same genotype (genes) result in a different phenotype (physical) due to environmental conditions.  Example: acquiring a language – we are all born with the same capacity to learn any language in the world, but we quickly learn st the 1 language we hear when we are birthed. It may be much harder (for some of us) to learn a new language once we get older Example: attachment to caregiver, situational differences (raised by a single parent, growing up in certain living conditions, etc.) these all effect our perception of life differently in the long run.


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