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by: Mohammed Salman Bu Abdal
Mohammed Salman Bu Abdal


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Grubbs, S
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mohammed Salman Bu Abdal on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL122-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Grubbs, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see BIOL CONC EVOL DIV ECOL in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Review 4 processes that can change allele frequencies in populations over time causing evolution are: 1)natural selection 2) genetic drift 3) gene flow 4)mutation modifies allele frequencies by continually introducing new alleles. mutation. the alleles created by mutation may be beneficial or deleterious (harmful) or have no effect on fitness occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, and breed. Gene Flow. allele frequencies may change when gene flow occurs, because arriving individuals introduce alleles to their new population and departing individuals remove alleles from old population causes allele frequences to change randomly. Genetic Drift. In some cases, genetic drift may cause alleles that decrease fitness to increase in frequency increases the frequency of natural alleles- the ones that contribute to reproductive success in a particular enviroment natural selection. the only one of the four processes that leads to adaptation which increases fitness. the relative likelihood that a genotype will contribute to the gene pool of the next generation as compared with other Relative fitness a quanitative measure of reproductive sucess fitness the genotype with the highest reproductive success is given a fitness value of 1 1.0, 0.80, 0.20 group of indivicuals of the same species that can interbreed with one another population all the genes in a population gene pool # of individuals w/a particular genotype in a population/Total # of individuals in a population genotype frequency hardy-weinberg equation p squared + 2pq + q squared=1 the hardy-weinberg equation predicts an equilibrium of-- unchanging allele and genotype frequences in a population which means the population is not evolving the hardy-weinberg equation predicts an equilibrium which means the population is not evolving. IF these 5 assumptions are met: 1) the population is so large that allele frequencies do not change 2) the members of the population mate at random 3)no mutationcs 4)no survival 5)no new migration occurs since the assumptions made by the Hardy weinberg equilibrium occasion are NOT ALL MET microevolution If instead of random mating,as assumes by hardy weinber principle, the individuals in a population somewhow select their mates, then mating is nonrandom the mating of two geneticially related individuals, siblings, or cousins Inbreeding Will homozygotes or heterozygotes be increased as a result of inbreeding? Homozygotes In breeding dpression refers to the DECLINE in average fitness that results when homozygosity increase and heterozygosity decreases in a population Inbreeding changes genotype frequencies, but because it DOES NOT CHANGE directly the allele frequencies, there fore does not directly cause evolution favors individuals at one extreme of a phenotype distribution that have greater reproductive success in a particular enviroment Directional Selection favors survival of individuals with intermediate phenotypes stabilizing selection survival of two or more different genotypes that produce different phenotypes disruptive selection a type of natural selection that maintains genetic diversity in a population as is the case with heterozygote advantage Balanacing selection sexual selection leads to sexual dimorphism which refers to any trait that differe between males and females babies that are born too small or too large do not survive stablizing over time, a population of birds tend to have longer beaks directional in a population, the noisiest and the queitest individuals survive disruption a peacock male with the prettiest feathers is selected by females for mating sexual rams with the biggest horns win battles for mating priviliges sexual the genetic bottleneck effect results from a drastic reduction in size of a population by a catastrophe such as earthquake. genetic variation of this population is small the founder effect occurs when a small group of individuals separates from a larger population and becomes founders in a new place migration leads to an DECREASE in genetic variation genetic flow occurs when individuals mirgrate between populations having different allele frequencies If a population is NOT in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for a specific gene, which statement is correct? atleast one of the hardy weinberg assumptions has been broken how might genotype frequencies change under directional selection? genotypes that represent larger individuals will become more prevalent when balancing selection occurs- no single allele has a distinct advantage, and thus increasing in frequency how do stabilizing and disruptive selection differ? stabilizing selection reduces the amount of variation in a trait. disruptive selection increases the amount of variation the direction of evolutionary change due to genetic drift is random what term is defined as the change in allele frequencies that occurs when a new population is established founder effect which evolutionary mechanism always increases genetic variation in a population? mutation decreases genetic variation genetic drift may decrease or maintain genetic variation selection increases genetic variation mutation may increase or decrease genetic variation gene flow what does it mean when an allele reaches "fixation" it has a frequency of 1.0 mutation is the only- source of new alleles what evolutionary mechanism results in adaptation? natural selection basic components of hardy-weinberg model frequencies of two alleles in a gene pool before and after mating what evolutionary forces results in adaptive changes in allele frequencies? selection what evolutionary force could create new genetic information in a population? mutations disruptive selection leads to increase in genetic variation Biological, morphological, and phylogenetic species concepts allow biologists to identify evolutionarily independent groups because they all rely on criteria indicative of _____. no gene flow between populations Which mechanism causes postzygotic reproductive isolation? Hybrid sterility Which is the first step in allopatric speciation? Physical isolation of two populations


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