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Class Notes

by: Marie besner

Class Notes HIS 205 WI

Marie besner

GPA 2.8

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Course notes throughout all of the semester.
US Hist to 1877
Steve G. Voguit
Class Notes
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie besner on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 205 WI at Flagler College taught by Steve G. Voguit in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see US Hist to 1877 in History at Flagler College.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
History Discovery of America  16,000 – 14,000 B.C.E. o Bering Strait Migration – Possible land bridge (dropping sea levels) o Northwest coast migration  9,000 B.C.E. o Migrations reach the tip of south America (boats)  By 1492 or 1500 o 50 million people lived in the Americas (maybe 75 million) Christopher Columbus o October 12, 1492 o Columbus makes his first of four landings o Why 1492? o Reasons for the age of discovery: o The Renaissance (revival of learning) o Population growth (post black death) o Emergence of powerful political states (growing financial power and international political power) o Affluent landed class (increased demand for goods) North American Colonization o Spain, England, and France o Spain established Havana (1515), San Juan (1521), Cartagena (1533), and St. Augustine (1565) o 1588- Defeat of the Spanish Armada resulted in English supremacy o Incentives for English colonization: o Commercial (make money) o Religious (solution to religious problems) o Characteristics of the English colonies: o Many were business enterprises that were financed privately and were expected to make a profit o Colonists made little effort to adapt (transplantations) o Nothing worked out as they expected (could not isolate themselves from the Indians, the Spanish or the French) Founding of St. Augustine o September 8, 1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles lands in present day St. Augustine to established a camp and march his troops north toward present day Jacksonville to eliminate the French Protestant colony that had been established there the year before. o Realizing that the harbor was well protected and that the Gulf Stream came close to this part of Florida, the Spanish decide to establish St. Augustine o The first settlement was about where the Fountain of Youth attraction is located. o The second attempt was on Anastasia Island. o The third attempt was from the plaza south about eight blocks along the bay front and west about to the Casa Monica Hotel. The Amazing story of the founding of Virginia Colony  Concepts of the “frontier” and Mercantilism(what world believed before we believed in capitalism)  English colonies were in 4 groups: o Chesapeake (Virginia and Maryland) o New England (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. ) o Restoration colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, North and South Carolina) o Borderlands (Georgia) o 1585- Sir Walter Raleigh sent a expedition to Roanoke Island under Richard Greenville o 1587- Raleigh tries again (91 men, 17 women, and 9 children) under John White o 1590- White returns and everyone is gone “Croatoan” Miracles  James I granted a charter in 1606 to the Plymouth and London Companies to begin in the New World  London company pounced and 1607 they sent 144 men in 3 ships to Virginia  May 14, 1607 – they chose Jamestown because it appeared easy to defend from Indians.  Jan 1608 - only 38 souls remained  1609- 9 ships carrying 600 settlers sent to Jamestown; The Venture wrecks in Bermuda  1609- 1610 the “starving time” (60 of 500 survived)  May 23 1610 the Patience and the Deliverance (built in Bermuda) arrive in Jamestown from Bermuda with the other 100  June 9 1610 the Patience and the Deliverance are intercepted on the James River by the ships of Thomas West, Lord De La Warr. The Salvation  Tobacco (John Rolfe) – a cash crop- by 1619 Jamestown was exporting 10 tons of tobacco per year to England  Headrights (incentive program) – 100 acres to all settlers; 50 acres for each additional family member; 50 acres for each ticket you buy for a new settler (indentured servants) and 50 acres for each slave  Diversification – iron workers and other skilled craftsman  Africans - 1619  Women- 1619  Agricultural help from the Indians (beans, pumpkins, and corn)  Stability and economic prosperity was achieved The Results  By 1650 the population of Virginia was 40,000  Conflict with Indians was excessive  Governor William Berkeley established a line; east would be all white people and west would be the Indians  Berkeley secretly violated the line to run a lucrative fur trade with the Indians  Population pressure overwhelmed the line (really a demand for more and more land) Bacon’s Rebellion  Before 1675 Berkeley and Nathaniel Bacon (Berkeley’s cousin) are maneuvering politically  Bacon knew about the under-the-table fur trade (either wants a cut or will use it to force Berkeley out)  1675- Indian attacked a western planation and killed a white servant  Bacon demanded that Berkeley send troops west of the line to protect colonists there  September 19, 1676 Bacon and his army (400-500 men) burned Jamestown to the ground; Berkeley fled  October 26, 1676 Bacon died (suddenly) and the revolt collapsed  Berkeley was recalled by the King , Charles II and died in 1677 Significance  Revealed the struggle between the whites and Indians to define their boundaries  Revealed the divide between eastern and western landowners that became bitter  Revealed the instability among the large population of free landless men (Bacons army were mostly the landless)  REVEALED the NEED for AFRICAN SLAVES to PREVENT UNREST from BELOW (slaves unlike indentured servants did not have to be released) Founding of the Massachusetts Colony  1608- Separatists (pilgrims) from Scrooby, England leave for Leiden (Leyden), Holland to avoid investigation, persecution and mockery.  Problems in Holland included language barrier, lack of economic power, changes in their children.  1617- the decision was made to leave Holland  1617-1620 Separatist leadership negotiates with the English gov and investors to move to the New World  Sep 16, 1620 the Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, England with 102 passengers and supplies (speedwell fiasco)  November 20 1620, the Mayflower arrived in Cape Cod (Blown off course in an Atlantic storm) The Mayflower Compact  Nov 21, 1620 realizing that they are outside the territory granted to the London company, they write the Mayflower Compact and 41 adult male passengers sign  Mayflower Compact (William Bradford’s Journal):  Swear their allegiance to the king  Require the citizens to abide the rules and laws of the gov  Derive the power to govern from the consent of the governed  Was an essence a social contract The Mayflower Settlement  Dec 1620-Feb 1621 they used the Mayflower as a base of operations and explored the area and began to build shelter  They were poorly prepared (one plow) , 47% died, and all of them were ill The Puritans  Unlike the separatists they are a very large group with members even sitting in Parliament  1629 – John Winthrop receives a charter from King Charles I to establish a colony in New England  1630- 1,000 colonists, mostly families, on 17 ships cross the Atlantic and join the struggling Separatists in Massachusetts (largest migration of the 17 century)  1629-1643 about 21,000 Puritans immigrated to Massachusetts settling around present Boston and Salem Characteristics of the Puritan Colony  created a theocracy  Families created stability  Population grew rapidly  Severe religiosity created break-off colonies  By 1700 the population almost 56,000 Colonial Economies  Subsistence farming in the beginning (growing enough to feed your family)  Commerce evolved quickly (the tobacco crop in Va.) (crops to sell)  Significant English managerial decision: The Navigation Acts (1660 – 1849)  Only English ships could transport imports and exports to and from the colonies  Trade with the colonies had to be done by English citizens  Commodities such as sugar and tobacco could be exported only to English ports  Salutary Neglect (benign) the British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws (1607-1763)  Farming and trade (import and export)  Manufacturing (artisanal)  Shipping (merchant fleet – an American specialty)  Banking (private) (boston, NY, philidelphia)  Southern Economy (agricultural):  Tobacco (Virginia and NC)  Indigo (SC to Florida)  Northern Economy (diversification):  Farming  Home industries – cooking, baking, sewing  Iron works – large blacksmithing operations (forges)  Manufacturing and shipping The Changing Colonial Mind Traditional Outlook:  Personal God  Life of faith  Stern moral code Decline of Piety:  Westward expansion and separation from church  Rise of commercial prosperity-affluence and the resulting drift from tradition The Enlightenment:  Celebrated the power of scientific inquiry  Knowledge will advance civilization  Man is capable of making good moral decisions  The church loses much of its political power Consequences of the Enlightenment  High rate of literacy (50% of all white males)  Founding of colleges and schools (Harvard- Sep 8, 1636)  Legal and political self-sufficiency  By 1750 the colonists are:  Independent thinkers and literate for the times  People who will challenge established practices  People who will challenge new restrictions Slavery in America  Colonial population and slavery by  1750-1,170,800 (250,00 slaves)  1790- 3,929,326 (697,681)  Total number of enslaved in the Americas – 11,000,000  Basic Facts:  Captives of victorious tribes in West Africa  Triangular trade and the “middle passage”  Most go to Latin America to pick sugar cane  Less than 5% come to America (only tobacco required large numbers at first) Timeline of Slavery  1619- First African slaves arrive from West Africa  17 century – Portuguese slave traders are dominant  18 century – Dutch, French, and the English join the Portuguese  1690- royal African Company lost its monopolistic control over the slave trade  1700s- colonial legislatures passed slave codes which limited rights and gave owners master’s status  1808- slave trade outlawed in the U.S.  1865- slavery outlawed in the U.S. (13 amendment) (4,200,000 souls set free) The French and Indian War (seven-years war)  Setting the Stage  In 1750 the colonists view Britain amicably because:  They got opportunities for trade and commerce  Military protection  Political stability  Salutary neglect allowed existing restricting to be easily circumvented  In 1775 the first shots of the Revolutionary War are fired- what happened? Change the Relationship  The advent of the House of Hanover (German) into the British monarchy o George I (1714-1727) o George II (1727-1760) o George III (1761-1820)  Prime minister emerged as the real executive of the government  To remain in power, the PM had to maintain a coalition in Parliament  The PMs became very dependent upon the merchants and land owners  PMs wanted to keep the profit flow from the colonies and not overtax the merchants and landed aristocracy  Therefore, the PMs will tax the colonists Seven Years War  1754-1763  France vs.. Britain for domination in world trade and naval power  The colonists were expected to fight with the British  The Iroquois were caught in the middle  They favored the French because the French were more tolerant; good experiences with French fur trappers and Jesuit missionaries (but most of them sided with the British)  King Louis XIV deliberately expands French settlements (an escalation) Three Phases of the French and Indian War  Phase I (1754-1756)  George Washington (22 years old) leads a column of Virginia militia toward Pittsburg (Fort Duquesne) to challenge French expansion  Washington builds Fort Necessity and is attacked by the French and Indians (Washington was routed)  French reinforcements arrive during this phase  Britain expects the colonists to fight the war with only meager help from Britain  British general Edward Braddock with GW returns to Fort Duquesne and they are ambushed and Braddock is killed  Most of the fighting in this phase was the colonists repulsing Indian attacks along the frontier  Phase II (1756-1758)  Several battles were fought in New York and Pennsylvania  France allied with Austria; Britain allied with Prussia; was spreads in Europe, India, and the west Indies  William Pitt, future PM, begins to “press” the colonists into service, seizes supplies and shelter from the colonists without permission Phase III  1758-1763  Pitt agreed to reimburse colonists, returned recruitment over to the colonial legislatures, and sends British regulars in the fight  French experiences a series of bad harvests in Canada and cannot sustain the war effort  September 14, 1758 General James Wolfe captures Fort Duquesne  September 13, 1759 Quebec fell after a siege  The fall of Quebec ended in a 17 minute battle (Wolfe and the French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm both died)  September 8, 1760 the French surrender Montreal to General Jeffery Amherst (allowed all French to keep their homes, remain catholic, and returned French soldiers to France)  Feb 10, 1763 the Treaty of Paris ends the war Results of French and Indian War  Britain gets islands in the West Indies  Britain gets French colonies in India and Canada  Britain gets all French territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans Aftermath of war:  Doubled the area of British Empire  Greatly increased Britain’s debt  Greatly increased Britain’s operating expenses  Fueled a debate over commercial imperialism v.s. territorial imperialism  Created contempt among British officials for the American colonists The Turbulent 60’s – the 1760’s  1763- Proclamation Line  Intended to stop westward expansion thus saving the British great expense  British debt (pounds)  1754 - 73,000,000  1763 – 137,000,000  Annual income of the British government was about 8 million pounds The 1760’s  1764 – Sugar Act- lowered the tax on molasses by 50% from the Molasses Act of 1733 hoping it would be less offensive and more likely to be paid o Established British courts to try smugglers  1764- Currency Act o Ordered colonial assemblies to stop printing money  1765- Mutiny Act o Deployed permanent British troops in the colonies o Required the colonists to provision them o Ordered the Royal Navy to patrol American waters for smugglers  1765 Stamp Act o Created a tax on all printed documents Why were these moves by Great Britain so problematic?  They interfered with “home rule” and “salutary neglect” … or  HOME RULE WAS NOT SOMETHING NEW AND DIFFERENT THAT THE COLONISTS WERE STRIVING TO ATTAIN. IT WAS SOMETHING OLD AND FAMILIAR THAT THEY WERE STRIVING TO KEEP. 1760’s  March 18,1766 – Parliament repeals the Stamp Act and passes the Declaratory Act (total control)  1767 – Townshend Acts (Charles – Chancellor of the Exchequer)  Parliament created “external” taxes on paper, lead, paint, and tea  Parliament dissolved the New York Assembly when they protested the new taxes  1768 – In response to what happened in NY; the Massachusetts Assembly voted “92” to 17 to oppose every British tax external or internal  Merchants in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia organized a boycott of the taxed goods The Sizzling 70’s – 1770’s  March 5, 1770 the Boston Massacre  British soldiers fire into a crowd killing five – among them was Crispus Attucks  March 5, 1770 Lord North, the new Prime Minister, called for a repeal of the Townshend Acts  April 12, 1770 The king agrees to repeal all except the tax on tea  Dec 16, 1773 Boston Tea Party  Members of the Sons of Liberty dumped 342 chests of tea (24x18x18) into the harbor containing enough to make 24 million cups - $1 million today 1774 – The Coercive or Intolerable Acts  Closed the port of Boston  Reduced the powers of self government (all positions appointed by the governor or the king)  Royal officers could be tried in other colonies or in England (extraterritoriality)  Quartered troops in barns or empty houses (again) First Continental Congress Sep 5 – Oct 26, 1774  Rejected a colonial union  Endorsed a statement of grievances  Approved a call for military preparations  Agreed to no imports, no exports, and no consumption or to end all trade with Britain  Agreed to meet again Game On  April 19, 1775 – Battle of Lexington and Concord “The Shots heard around the world”  Lt. Col. Francis Smith led British troops out of Boston to Lexington and Concord to destroy colonial military supplies and capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock.  About 3,800 colonial troops fought about 1,500 British Troops  Casualties are:  Killed – 49 (colonials) 73 (British)  Wounded – 39 (colonials) 174 (British)  Missing – 5 (colonials) 53 (British) Second Continental Congress – May 10, 1775  Became the government of the colonies during the Revolutionary War  One of the first actions was the Olive Branch Petition  Formed a committee that wrote the Olive Branch Petition Independence (Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman)  March 1, 1777 approved the Articles of Confederation and became the Confederation congress The Revolutionary War  Phase I (1775-1776)  Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775) bloodiest day of the war:  British = 226 killed and 828 wounded  Patriots = 115 killed and 305 wounded  Fort Ticonderoga is captured on May 10, 1775  Henry Knox drags cannons from Ticonderoga to Dorchester heights that winter  The British evacuate Boston on March 17, 1776  British efforts in the southern colonies  Loyalists (Tories) encounter a Patriot force near Wilmington, N.C. Tori = 30 killed, 40 wounded, and 850 captured; Patriots = 1 killed, and 1 wounded  Patriot victory negated Cornwallis’ recruitment of Loyalists in the south  Benedict Arnold invades Canada (June 1775 to October 1776) but is soundly defeated on Dec 31, 1775 at the Battle of Quebec (first colonial defeat) Phase II (1776-1778)  Was becomes traditional and conventional  General William Howe (British) puts 32,000 troops in NYC (immediately following the 4 of July, 1776)  George Washington trying to defend NYC with 19,000 poorly armed and trained troops  GW is pummeled from NY across NJ and into PA  Crossing the Delaware Dec 25 th1776 and wins victories at th Trenton (Dec 26 ) and Princeton (Jan 3, 1777) Three Pronged Attack  The three pronged attack (Oct. 1777) the turning point  Two British forces under General John Burgoyne and Colonel Barry St. Leger march from Canada toward Albany  General William Howe then marches north from New York City to Albany to link up and seal off Massachusetts and crush the Revolution in New England  But, Howe sails to Philadelphia and leaves Burgoyne alone  Battle of Saratoga on Sep 19, and Oct 7, 1777 General Burgoyne surrenders to a superior force under the command of General Horatio Gates  9000 v.s. 7200 in the first battle and then 12,000 v.s. 6600 in the second  Benjamin Franklin uses this victory to persuade France to help us  Elizabeth Loring (she accompanied him to Philadelphia) Valley Forge and Monmouth  1777-1778  Washington’s winter encampment while Howe was in Philadelphia  Baron Friedrich von Steuben helps to train the Continental Army  Battle of Monmouth (June 1778) Washington fights the British to a draw  Washington’s famous moment with Charles Lee Revolutionary War  Phase III (1778-1781)  British go south to expected Loyalist support to undermine the Revolution  Battle of Guilford Courthouse (March 15, 1781) Lord Cornwallis wins the battle and loses 25% of his force  Cornwallis decides to march to Virginia – the other center of the revolution  Battle of Yorktown (Oct 17, 1781)  Cornwallis surrenders (Oct 19, 1781) 25% of the British army  But, the British control Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington, and New York and Admiral de Grasse got clobbered in the West Indies  Treaty of Paris – Sep. 3, 1783 (Franklin, Adams, and Jay)  U.S. is independent and Spain reacquires Florida Balance Sheet of the War or How could we have won? Ch. 6 1-8 pages 142-150  British had the #1 navy in the world  British had one of the best armies in the world  British had far more resources, political stability, traditions, and history.  Colonists knew the terrain  Colonists were given supply support  Colonists were fighting for all they had  Colonists received significant foreign aid  Colonists did not need to win to win  Colonists had inspirational leadership Articles of Confederation The Structure  Confederation Congress: The only institution of national authority  Congress could conduct war and foreign policy  Congress could appropriate, borrow, and issue money  Congress could not levy taxes  Congress could not regulate trade  Congress could not draft troops  The President: The presiding officer of the Congress (Hanseel- 1 Congress Court)  The Court: No national court  General Rules: Each state got one vote  9 votes needed for anything important  13 votes needed to amend or ratify Problems of the Articles of Confederation  Condition of the Country:  Post-war depression (AKA panic)  Shortage of money – colonial money collapsed since too much had been printed.  Huge war debts - $114 million from the 13 states combined and $37 million from the central government  No power to tax (debt keeps accumulating interest)  Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris, and James Madison: call for a national tax (it fails) Shays’ Rebellion- 1786 to 1787  Daniel Shays (Continental Army Captain from Massachusetts) and his poor angry veterans take up arms and demand that the government: o Print more paper money o Provide tax relief o Declare a moratorium on debts o Relocate the state capital to the interior of Massachusetts o Abolish debtors prison o Shays was dispersed in 1787 by the merchants and sentenced to death (2 men were actually hanged/shay lived) o He was pardoned by the Governor (John Hancock) and lived to 1825 More Problems  Hounded by Revolutionary War vets demanding back pay  Fled Philadelphia to Princeton to Annapolis to New York City  Narrowly escaped a quorum failure on the Treaty of Paris  Passage of state tariffs (tax on imports) – a need for tax uniformity  The U.S. had 13 commercial policies  The Indian menace worsened  State currencies were too inflated and devalued  Shays, Shays, Shays ( a frightening precedent)  Obvious need to tax and no power to do it To the Constitutional Convention  Alexander Hamilton and James Madison call a meeting in Annapolis in 1786- correct Articles  In Annapolis they call a national meeting in Philadelphia in the spring od 1787  Because of Shays, George Washington agreed to attend  Held in Philadelphia  55 delegates from 12 states (Rhode Island did not attend)  GW chaired the meeting  Convened in May – presented the document on Sep 17, 1787 (incomplete - to be finished by the government) Major Issues of the Constitution 1787  Virginia Plan: o Separation of powers (executive, legislative, judicial) o Bicameral legislature chosen by population  New Jersey Plan: o Unicameral legislature with equal representation  Slavery Issue - are slaves population or property? Count and/or tax?  Slave states wanted slaves to be population for representation, but not taxable Issues of the Constitution  The Great Compromise (Benjamin Franklin to the rescue):  House of Representatives based on population  Senate based on equal representation  3/5ths compromise for slavery – 5 slaves equal 3 people  20 year moratorium (time-out) on the abolition of the slave trade  $10 per slave maximum tax on slaves  No taxes on exports  Sovereignty (James Madison to the rescue):  Power to govern flows from the people (John Locke)  Division of powers between the national government and the states  Limiting Powers (James Madison again):  Checks and balances o Veto power o Impeachment o Judicial review (coming later)  Hamilton, Madison, and Jay write the Federalist Papers to calm the peoples fears  Creates a difference of opinion between federalists and anti- federalists  Federalists feared disorder, anarchy, and chaos (wanted a strong national government)  Anti-federalists feared a strong national government (wanted most power in the states)  Massachusetts Compromise- allowed amendments to the Constitution (that sealed the deal) New Government Emerges  To ratify the Constitution 9 out of 13 states had to agree  New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify on June 21, 1788  Election of 1789 (should have been 1788)  George Washington and John Adams by acclimation (no one to run against him)  Inaugurated on April 30, 1789  First Cabinet: o Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson o Secretary of War – Henry Knox o Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton o Attorney General – Edmund Randolph st End of info for 1 Test Federalist’s v. Anti-Federalists  Federalists o Alexander Hamilton o Strong national gov. o Complex commercial economy o Involved in world affairs gov of modest size   Republicans (anti-federalists) o Thomas Jefferson o States more powerful o Rural and agrarian economy o Limited in world affairs small gov  Since GW supported the Federalists and Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists approach was dominant.    The Federalists Period  Completing the constitutional structure  Bill of Rights- first ten amendments (guarantees rights of people)  The Judiciary Act of 1789: o Supreme Court (6 Justices) o 13 district courts (1 judge) o 3 circuit courts of appeals (1 judge and 2 supreme court justices) o Then there was Hamilton’s economic program:  The Debt:  Replace Revolutionary War Bonds at face value (controversial)  Assume the debt of the states (future location of Washington, D.C in the deal)  Never pay it off (we have mastered that idea)  Hamilton’s Plan  The Bank of the United States  Provide loans to businesses and issue currency  Depository of government funds  Collect taxes and disburse funds  Maintain government bonds  Chartered in 1791 for 20 years (1811)  Taxes  Excise tax – tax on good made in your country  Tariff – tax on imports (two types: raise revenue (small encourages imports) and protect manufacturing (big; discourages imports)  Other issues: Stabilization of the western frontier:  Whiskey Rebellion (1794) – had to do w/ Hamilton’s excise tax  Statehood for Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee by 1796  Continued to fight the Indians and defeated all of them  Sore Losers?  Then there were the midnight appointments:  Adams got the lame duck congress ( they were federalists too) to pass a new Judiciary Act  It reduced the number of Supreme Court Justices from 6-5 and increased the number of circuit courts from 3-6  Created new federal district courts  All those and many other judiciary positions would be filled by Federalists  Adams was signing appointment letters of federal justices until midnight the day before the inauguration of Jefferson hence the name Midnight Appointments   Jeffersonian Democracy  Jefferson called his election “The Revolution of 1800”  His vision of America was:  Sturdy independent farmers  Universal education based on the scientific rationalism of the Enlightenment  Cultural perspective of localism  Federal government of limited authority  Most political power at the state level   Jefferson’s smaller government  Jefferson abolished all taxes except the tariff  The governments only source of income was the sale western lands  Jefferson reduced the size of all government departments  Jefferson reduced the debt from $83 millions to $45 million  Jefferson reduced the army from 4,000 to 2,500  Jefferson reduced the navy from 25 to 7 ships  But Jefferson did start west point   What was really happening?  The United States was industrializing because we possessed the ingredients of industrialization:  Population (labor and markets)  Natural resources  Seaports and navigable rivers  Inventors, entrepreneurs, and investors   The Inventors  Samuel Slater – first successful textile mill - 1793  Eli Whitney – interchangeable parts – 1793  Oliver Evans – steam engine and carriages – 1794  John Fitch – steam engines and boats – 1794  Robert Fulton – steam boats – 1807  The Merchant Fleet 1789-1810  Total tonnage transported increased from 125,000 to 1,000,000 tons  1789- 30% of all U.S. exports traveled on U.S. ships  by 1810 – 90% of U.S. exports traveled on U.S. ships  we were establishing a global presence  the sure sign that Jefferson’s vision was going to disappear:  by 1800 30% of the American people lived in towns of 8,000 or more   The Louisiana Purchase – the end of the Jefferson Vision  1800 – Treaty of IIdefonso gave Louisiana and New Orleans to France (from Spain) but the transfer did not occur until 1803  1802- Spanish closed the port to Americans merchants because  U.S. had a right to load and unload (deposit) but we were not paying fees and duties to Spain  1801-1803 Robert Livingston , James Monroe, and Pierre Samuel Du Pont were involved in negotiations to buy New Orleans  April 30, 1803 – Livingston and Monroe buy all of Louisiana from Napoleon for $15,000,000 (3cents/acre)  The ultimate transformation of the U.S. was now possible:   Causes of the War of 1812 – the Second American War of Independence  (Mr. Madison’s war) – 3 name  Two simultaneous conflicts intertwined become the War of 1812  From 1803-1812 – Napoleonic Wars raged in Europe- the U.S. was caught in the middle because of our trade with Europe.  An ongoing conflict with the Indians over settler encroachments in the Northwest and the South.  The Indians made connections with the British in Canada and the Spanish in Florida.   Troubles with Britain  As the 1800s begin – a large American merchant marine is at sea trading regularly with Europe and Asia  1805- Battle of Trafalgar (British fleet under Lord Horatio Nelson destroyed the French navy)  Britain the created a naval blockade  Without a navy, Napoleon creates the Continental System  June 22, 1807 – The Chesapeake Incident  HMS Leopard fires upon the Chesapeake killing 3 and wounding 18 including the captain, James Baron  The British then board search for deserters and remove 4 more sailors 3 of whom were Americans  President Jefferson sends Monroe to London to get the British to renounce impressments  The Chesapeake Incident  Instead the British do the following:  Recalled (fired) the office responsible – Salisbury Pryce Humphreys  Offered compensation to the families of those killed or wounded  Promised to return 3 of 4 sailors seized  Refused to renounce impressments   Complications  1807- the Embargo Act – Peaceful Coercion  Prohibited American Ships from leaving U.S. for any foreign port anywhere in the world.  Despite typical American evasion, the Embargo Act caused a depression and a resurgence of the Federalists  So, Jefferson creates the Non-Intercourse Act – trade will resume with all but Britain and France  James Madison becomes President and signs Macon’s Bill #2 – reopens trade with Britain and France until they violate our neutrality (#1 prevented British or French ships from entering American ports)  Our economy is too fragile to play this squeeze game – a real mess   Now, the Indians  William Henry Harrison and Jefferson’s Indian solution:  Convert to be settled farmers and be assimilated or  Move west of the Mississippi River  Harrison and others grabbed tribal lands  The British were fomenting Indian attacks and encouraging tribal unity  Shawnee Leaders:  Tenskwatawa (the prophet) preached the superiority of Indian life  Techumseh ( ^ brother) the war chief had an agenda: o Halt white expansion o Recover the northwest territory o Make Ohio River the boundary of the U.S.  November 7, 1811 – The Battle of Tippecanoe – Harrison attacked Prophetstown – Tecumseh was south organizing southern tribes for the upcoming fight   The War of 1812  June 18, 1812 – The U.S. declared was on Great Britain  The major Action of the way 1812:  Sep 10, 1813 Battle of Lake Erie  To: General William Henry Harrison  From: Master Commander Oliver Hazard Perry  We have met the enemy and they are ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop  Yours with great respect and esteem,  O.H. Perry  Oct 5 1813 Harrison invades Canada Tecumseh is killed  Aug 24 1814 British attacked and burned Washington D.C.  Sep 11, 1814 forces repelled a British  Army at Plattsburgh, N.Y.  Nov 7 1814- Andrew Jackson takes Pensacola  Nov 27 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Jackson v.s. Creeks)  Dec 24 1814 Treaty of Ghent (Belgium) - (ends the fighting)  Jan 8 1815 – battle of New Orleans   Results of the war  The U.S. wins its second war of independence  Tecumseh is dead; another setback for Native Americans  Improved American – British relations  Americans spurred on to another move west  A surge in American nationalism   Examples of American Nationalism after the War of 1812  Economic Growth: o Second bank of the U.S. -1816 – a new charter o Tariff of 1816 – Britain flooded the U.S. markets with iron and cotton-Congress protected American goods with a series of 25% tariffs o Road building- accelerated construction of the National Road 1811-1839  Demographic growth: o Population doubles (1800-1820) 5.3. million to 9.6 million o Westward expansion increased (Indian menace diminished)  Political developments: o Era of Good Feeling – non-partisan period (1817-1825) o Election of 1820 – James Monroe ran without a campaign but William Plumer an elector from New Hampshire voted for John Quincy Adams  International Presence: o Acquisition of Florida: o Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 John Quincy Adams v.s. Luis Onis o Spain furious over the military actions of Andrew Jackson o The U.S. was demanding Spanish action against the Seminoles o The U.S. wanted payment of 5$ million to U.S. citizens for property damage caused by the Seminoles (actual amount of claims was $5,454,545.13 o The U.S. is given Florida and promises not to take Texas o Monroe Doctrine- Dec 2 1823 o Efforts by European government to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the United States of America as acts of aggressions requiring US intervention. o Response to the Independence movement sweeping Latin America from 1806-1825   How Political Parties Reappeared – A series of connections  Napoleonic Wars disrupt European farming  = American farm goods are in demand resulting in high prices  = a land boom starts – high land prices and easy credit  = Second Bank of the U.S. sees overextended credit  = The banks tightens credit, calls in loans, and forecloses on mortgagees  = State banks start to fail and value of manufactures good falls  = Americans, especially Westerners, blame he Second Bank of the U.S.   Sectionalism  North- industrializing, using free labor  South – remaining agricultural, using slave labor  West – emerging region, perceived themselves as being on the outside, largely agricultural with slave labor  Each region developed a local perspective on politics and national affairs   Election of 1824  A single political party – Democratic Republicans – 4 sectional candidates  William Crawford – Georgia – Secretary of the Treasury o Former U.S. Senator o Ambassador to France o Secretary of the Treasury for Jefferson o The SOUTH’S candidate  John Quincy Adams – Massachusetts – Secretary of State o Son of John Adams o Diplomat (Adams-Onis) o The NORTH’s candidate  Henry Clay – Tennessee- Speaker of House o A candidate form the west  Andrew Jackson – Tennessee – U.S. Senator o War hero o The WEST’S candidate  Results: 131 electoral votes needed to win  Jackson: 153,544 and 99 electoral votes  Adams: 108,740 and 84 electoral votes  Clay: 47,136 and 37 electoral votes  Crawford: 46,618 and 41 electoral votes  Election goes to the House and on the first ballot they declare John Quincy Adams President     “A Corrupt Bargain”  Henry Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams (wants to be Secretary of state)  President John Quincy Adams appointed Henry Clay Secretary of State   John Marshall  Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from Feb 4, 1801 – July 6,1835  Served in the Continental Army and was a friend of George Washington  Turned down the first ever Attorney General position  A federalist appointed Chief Justice by John Adams  Longest serving Supreme Court Chief Justice in American History  Wrote a five volume biography of Washington while he was Chief Justice   John Marshall’s Legacy  Marbury v. Madison – 1803 o Marbury was midnight appointment federalist judge – his letter was signed and never delivered. Madison Jefferson’s Sec of State – anti fed. / Marbury contacts Madison to deliver letter = he doesn’t= Marbury sued Madison o Established the concept of judicial review (power to declare things unconstitutional)  McCulloch v. Maryland – 1819 o Declared a state tax unconstitutional thus creating the concept of implied powers of the federal government over the states  Dartmouth College v. Woodward – 1819 o Was really about contract law o Made contracts inviolable, assumed the right to review state law and state court decisions  Gibbons v. Ogden – 1824 o Steamboats o Gibbons had permission to bring people from NJ to NY /Ogden did not. o Assumed the power to regulate interstate commerce o Federal decision – favored Gibbons   Jacksonian Democracy  Election 1828  Democratic Republicans – Andrew Jackson  An assault on privilege (eastern old money)  Widening opportunities (western new money)  National Republicans – John Quincy Adams  Economic Nationalism  Preserve the status quo  Jackson wins 56% of the popular vote and the electoral vote:  Jackson – 178 Adams - 83  Adams did sweep New England   Who were the Jacksonians?  Who were they not? o Egalitarians (did not want equality socially, economically, or politically.) o Abolitionists o Friends of the Indians (one of the harshest assaults on Native Americans in American history) o Accepting of the status quo of economic inequality and social gradation  So who were they? o Jacksonian Democrats were frontier aristocrats of wealth and standing who had risen to prominence on their own talents and energies o They wanted to seize control of the government, economy, and society away from the old money eastern aristocrats  They did: o Transform American politics and extend the right to vote to new groups o Challenge the eastern elites for the sake of the rising entrepreneurs of the south and west   Expanding the Electorate  Dropped land ownership requirement  Dropped church membership requirement  Who votes and held office: o All adult white males  Who did not vote ath hold office: o Women (19 amendment - 1920) o Slaves o Free blacks o Native Americans  And then there was non secret ballot – did any of this change anything?  1824 – less than 27% adult white males voted  1828 – 58% adult white males voted  1840 – 80% adult white males voted   Other Jacksonian Changes  Political changes:  Spoil system – many permanent office holders out, followers and campaign workers in (919 removed)  “To the victor belongs the spoils” – Senator William Marcy of NY, a Jackson supporter  Loyalty supersedes competence  Leads to the Pendleton Act of 1883 and the creation of the U.S. Civil Service Commission  Government jobs according to exam scores (the merit system)  Created the Presidential Nominating Convention (candidates chosen by delegates to a convention)  Replaced Congressional party caucuses which were dominated by old eastern power interests   Three Major Events of the Jacksonian Period  Jacksonians become the Democrats  Their opponents become the Whigs (1830s-1850s) wanted the supremacy of Congress over the President  The Nullification Controversy (1832-1833)  Removal of the Indians (1830-1838)  The Bank War (1832-8141)   The Nullification Controversy  Tariff of 1828 (tariff of abominations)  49%  Increases cost-of-living with no increase in wages  South Carolina is especially angry and declares war that they would rather secede than pay the tax.  Sen. John C Calhoun suggests a plan: o The federal government draws its power from the states o Therefore, the federal government was the creations of the states o The, the states were the final arbiters of the constitutionality of the law o Any state could declare a federal law null and void o If 3/4ths of the states ratified the law as an amendment to the constitution then the state that nullified it had to submit to the law or secede o So, in 1832 South Carolina nullified the tariff of 1828   Nullification  Jackson’s reaction: Treason  Force Bill – May 2, 1833 – authorized the President to use whatever force necessary to enforce tariffs  To the rescue Henry Clay with a compromise: o 10 year reduction in steps o From the 1828 rate of 49% o To the 1816 rate of 25%   Removal of Indians  The changing public perception  18 century paternalistic view of the noble savage th  19 century view as bloodthirsty ignorant savages  Then, Jackson was very anti-Indian  As President, Jackson wants the remaining Indians east of the Mississippi to be moved west of the river.  This idea originates with John C. Calhoun in the Monroe Administration  The problem area was in the South with the 5 civilized tribes:  Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw  Especially the Cherokee since they had become settles farmers, created a written language, and wrote a constitution   The Indians  The Cherokee actually took their case to the Supreme Court and won  Johnson v. Mclntosh – 1823  Tribes had a right to tribal lands and only the federal government could buy or take their land, not individuals  Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831  Only federal government could establish rules concerning access to tribes and tribal lands not the states.  Chief Justice at the time? John Marshall o Jacksons reaction – “Marshall made his decision now let him enforce it”  Indian Removal Act of 1830 provisions: o All eastern Indians must leave and go west of the Mississippi o Compensation for old lands o Perpetual title to new lands o Payment of cost of the move o A years subsistence in their new homes o The president may use force in they resist o Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 (about white people) o Prohibited all white men from entering tribal lands o License traders were the exception   The Removal  So at bayonet point:  Choctaws marched west 1830  Creek 1836  Chickasaw 1837  Cherokee 1838 – Trail of Tears  Seminole – Refused To Go  Fight a guerilla was with black runaway slaves under Osceola 1835-1842  1500 U.S. soldiers killed  $20 million – cost  Osceola captured in 1837 (here) and dies in prison on 1838 in South Carolina  U.S. abandoned the war  4,420 Seminole surrendered and deported to the west; only 300 remained in Florida mostly in the Everglades  18,600 in the tribe today and 15,572 in Oklahoma   The Bank War  To Jackson the bank symbolizes the eastern, old money influence  President of the Bank – Nicholas Biddle  “Soft Money” advocates o Print more money unsupported by gold and silver o Did not like restraints on state banks  “Hard Money” advocates o Print only money backed by gold and silver o Oppose banks printing money including the Bank of the United States  Jackson was a “hard money” guy, but his constituents were “soft money” people from the west and south.  Jackson hates the bank on another level – eastern old money influence  Biddle asks and receives a renewal of the charter 4 years early in 1832  Jackson vetoed it and there was no override.  The bank becomes the central issue in the Election of 1832  Democrats – Andrew Jackson  National Republicans – Henry Clay  Jackson – 687,502 and 219 - electoral votes  Clay – 530,189 and 49 - electoral votes  Bank Results:  Jackson pulls all U.S. funds from the bank (went through three Secretaries of the Treasury)  Jackson puts the money in “pet” state banks  Biddle calls in loans and raises interest rates which causes a recession  The Bank was doomed:  Charter renewal in 1836 was denied     END OF 2 ND TEST    The Industrialization of America   Ingredients of industrialization:  Natural resources: o Minerals (resource endowment) o Coastlines and rivers (shipping and commerce) o Space (potential for development)  Population: o Large enough to grow our own food (commercial agriculture) o A suitable labor force for industry o A market for manufactured goods o An impressive list of inventors and entrepreneurs  Transportation: o Canals o Railroads  Communication: o Telegraph – Samuel F.B. Morse (1837invented-1844 tested) o Journalism- enabled by the rotary steam press and the telegraph  Technology: o Interchangeable parts – Eli Whitney (1798-1809) key idea behind mass production o Fuel and energy – animal, water, coal, and oil  Systems of Business Organization: o Corporations – stock, limited liability, perpetual life   The Economic Revolution 1820-1860  Population trends: o Rapid growth  1800- 5,300,000  1860- 31,500,000  Westward movement – Farmland, railroads, and gold  Urbanization: o 1790 - 7.2% urban and 92.8% rural o 1860 – 19.8% urban and 80.2% rural o 1900 - 39.6% urban and 60.4% rural o Today – 81% urban and 19% rural  The Immigrants  Immigration by decade: o 1820-1830 = 151,824 o 1831-1840 = 599,125 o 1841-1850 = 1,713,251 o 1851-1860 = 2,598,214 o 1861-1870 = 2,314,824 o 50% of NYC were immigrants o Immigrants outnumbered native born in St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Chicago o Three largest groups: 43% Irish, 27% German, 18% British   The Population: lack of social conflict  As the gap widened, the poor did improve  Materially, life in cities was better than life on the farms  Immigrants were much better after they got here  Some poor did more from poverty to great wealth (lotto effect- if it could happen to him, it could happen to me)  Geographic mobility- “safety valve of discontent”  Emerging middle class   Transportation – Railroads th  Primary transportation system until the 20 century  Developed from a combination of technological and entrepreneurial innovations  Evolution of tracks – wood to iron to steel  Specially designed cars to carry freight and passengers  Entrepreneurs and investors who wanted to link east and west  Standard gauge(4’8 & 1/2'”) and the “trunk” (connector) lines  Steam powered locomotives – wood to coal  Better scheduling and fewer wrecks  1940– 2,818 miles of track  1850- 9,021 miles of track  1860- 27,000 miles  north had quadruple the trackage of the south  bridges spanned the Mississippi before the Civil War   Communication – The Telegraph  telegraph of Samuel F.B. Morse  patented in 1837; tested in 1844 (lack of funds)  lines followed the railroad tracks  western Union Co. ran the telegraph  Associated Press linked the telegraph and news gathering  Impact on the American people – a new awareness  Impact on the south – being disconnected   Forms of Business Organization and the Factory System  Corporations emerge in the 1830’s – contributes to the factory system  1840- $483 million of manufacturing  1850 - $1 million  1860-$2 million  interesting points: o importance of coal (90 day supply) o immigrants and intact families (cheap labor came to us) o importance to farming (farm machinery and tools were factory produced and increased yield/acre and that increased economic diversification)     Cotton, Slavery, and the Old South  short – staple cotton (very hearty but difficult to remove the seeds)  sitting there waiting was the cotton gin (1793) of Eli Whitney  1820 the U.S. produced 500,000 bales of cotton  1850- 3,000,000 bales  1860- 5,000,000 bales  by 1860 66% of all U.S. were cotton  by 1860 value of rice was $2,000,000 and the vaue of cotton was $200,000,000  Increase in slavery: o Alabama had 41,000 slaves in 1820 and 435,000 in 1860 o Mississippi went from 32,000 to 436,000 at the same time   Southern Society During Slavery  Why did the south not industrialized?  Profitability of cotton  No capital left for investment (buying land and slaves)  Southern values (family traditions)  White Society in the South: o 6 million people o 347,525 owned slaves (about 5% of the population) o slave owners who had 40-50 and 800 acres of land were at the apex of society politically, economically, and socially (about 1% of all slave owners) o Old South of “Gone with the Wind” was largely a myth o Believed in Honor, Dignity, and Authority   Southern Society  Southern women compared to northern women:  Undereducated  More domestic  Higher birth rate – 1800 to 1900 TFR (total fertility rate) dropped from 7.04 to 3.56 nationally but southern women were at 6.91 by 1900  Endured infidelity with slaves silently  Plain folk:  Disconnected from the planter class  Owned either a few slaves or none  Lived on less desirable land  Accepted their squalor with slaves beneath them   The Peculiar institution (a paradox)  The structure of slavery isolated the slaves from whites  Slaves developed a distinct society and culture (extended families and a strong belief in salvation)  Often bonded with masters (the paradox)  Slave codes- gave the owners absolute power over their human poverty; passed by each state – later Jim Crow laws  Task system and gang system  Adequate diet, gardens, crude cabins, and some doctoring  Single mothers common (husbands sold)  Conditions often better than northern factory workers  Contract labor did the really dangerous work  Children – no hard work   Slavery  House servants easier life than field hands  House servants sometimes became family, but they had less privacy, more punishment, and more sexual abuse  Slavery in cities:  Less supervision  Some hired out  Less distinct line of separation  Free blacks – 250,000 (does granting freedom cause trouble?)  Could buy freedom, some freed by wills, become more difficult in the 1850’s  Slave trade outlawed in 1808 (smuggling into the 1850’s)  Slave resistance: o Gabriel Prosser (1800) – Gabriel and 26 slaves were hanged in Richmond, Virginia o Denmark Vesey (1822) – from the Caribbean. Purchased his freedom, planned a large slave revolt in Charleston S.C. was hanged o Nat Turner (1831): Southampton County, Virginia – Revolted o 60 whites killed o 100 slaves executed  subtle resistance: o Laziness o Making mistakes o Break tools  Slave culture emerges – language (Gullah), religion (long and joyful services), and music of suffering and freedom  Lamentation of bondage and celebration of freedom permeates the culture  Slaves families – large with extended kinship  Premarital pregnancy accepted   Abolitionism  Abolitionism emerges in the 1830’s  Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison  North – strident and powerful in their support  South – belligerent defense of slavery  Brinkley’s view: o In the 1840’s slavery was a dangerous and persistent crisis o In the 1850’s slavery caused uncontainable bitterness, anger, and despair  The Republican Party (abolitionist) formed in 1854  Civil War Smithsonian Notes on slideshow – Print    Americans in Texas  Found out land was perfect for growing cotton  Were mostly southerners with slaves  By 1830- 7,000 Americans in Texas  1835- 30,000 Americans in Texas  they kept their cultural and economic ties to U.S.  They wanted to legalize slavery   Mexican-American War  Results:  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Feb. 2, 1848)  U.S. gets California and New Mexico territories  Rio Grande is the boundary of Texas  U.S. will pay Mexico’s debts to U.S. citizens of the new territories and pay Mexico #15 million  Ratified by the Senate 38 – 14  The Resulting Debate Wilmont Proviso – no slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico (never passed)  15 slave states and 15 free states (are slaves going to be allowed inn new territories?)  Extend that 1820 line or Popular Sovereignty ?   Compromise of 1850  California admitted as a free state  Popular Sovereignty allowed in Utah and New Mexico  Set the border of Texas  Abolished the slave trade in Washington, D.C.  Strengthened the Fugitive Slave Law   The Crisis of the 1850’s of The Events Leading to the Civil War  Locating the Transcontinental railroad:  The Gadsden Purchase (1853-1854) o - Acquiring the southern route  Kansas – Nebraska Act – May 30, 1854 o To open the lands for the Chicago route if the transcontinental railroad o Created popular sovereignty for the Kansas- Nebraska territories  Bleeding Kansas – 1855-56  Slave owners from Missouri attack “free-staters” in Kansas   Crises of the 1850’s  Uncle Tom’s Cabin finished in 1852 and published on March 20, 1853  Humanized slavery and helped to polarize the disagreement  Dred Scott Case – March 6, 1857  Dr. John Emerson, army surgeon, owned Dred  Supreme court in Dred Scott V. John F.A. Sandford by a vote of 7- 2 ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen (he was a slave) and any restriction of slavery like the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional   John Brown’s Raid  October 16, 1859 John Brown leads 19 men on an attack of the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia  His objective was to seize 100,000 rifles and arm local slaves then head south pulling slaves in as he went until slavery was abolished  His use of violence was justified in his mind in a Biblical sense  Arrested October 18, 1859 – executed December 2, 1859  Colonel Robert E. Lee led the forces that arrested Brown  10 of Browns men were killed, 7 were arrested, 5 escaped  his sons Watson and Oliver were killed and Owen escaped   Election of 1860  Democrats (northern) – Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois)  Democrats (southern) – John C. Breckinridge (Kentucky)  Republicans – Abraham Lincoln (Illinois)  Constitutional party – john Belle (Tennessee)  Results: 303 electoral votes (152 to win) o Lincoln – 180 o Douglas – 12 o Breckinridge – 72 o Bell 39  Final straw- the south will being to secede   Secession  Southern Nationalism (states rights, fire eaters, the drift)  Northern Abolitionism (maintaining the Unites States)  Dec 20, 1860 – South Carolina leads the way followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas  Feb 4 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama the original 7 formed the Confederate States of America  Between April 17 and May 20, 1861 Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded  President Buchanan’s reaction and President Lincoln’s reaction  Buchanan- South has no right to secede, but he had no power to stop them  Lincoln – called 75000 volunteers  Crittenden’s Compromise o Kentucky Senator o A series of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the existence of slavery in the slave states o A Fugitive Slave Law o Slavery in Washington D.C. o Resurrection of the 1820 compromise line o Radical Republicans (abolitionists) say NO  Why then a civil war?  - Both Northerners and Southerners believed that the U.S. was now two civilizations incapable of living in peace   War Begins  First Shot – April 12. 1861 - Fort Sumter, Charleston, S.C.   The Union v.s. The Confederacy  Northern Advantages: o Population – 31 million total (6 million in the South + 4 million slaves) o 4/5ths of all American manufacturing o 2/3rds of all railroads in the U.S. were in North  Financing the war: o Taxes on goods and services (excise and tariff) o Tax on income (enacted 1862 and it was temporary) o Greenback dollars (emergency money) o Bonds and loans  Raising an army: o 2 million served o volunteers and/or conscription   North and South  Leadership  Abraham Lincoln was bold and dynamic  Bypassed Congress  Naval Power:  Able to blockade southern ports  Dominated the rivers of the south  Experimental ironclad ship – Monitor  African-Americans in the war:  186,000 served (most in menial tasks at the beginning)  More fought later in segregated regiments especially under Grant  Union Commanders:  George McClellan  George Meade  William Tecumseh Sherman  Ulysses S. Grant  Southern Advantages: o Public commitment and support o Some foreign aid o Familiar terrain o Defensive war (same position as George Washington strategically)  Financing the war: o Taxes imposed by the states (less than 1% of income) o States printed currencies o Bonds and loans  Raising the army: o 900,000 served o volunteers and/or conscription  Leadership  Jefferson Davis hampered by the confederation structure which was an intentionally weak national government  Naval power: o Small blockade runners (private boats) o Experimental ships – submarines and Virginia  African-Americans in the war: o Used for cooking, laundry, and manual labor  Commanders: o Davis neve


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