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Microbiology: Chapter 4

by: Savannah Carter

Microbiology: Chapter 4 Bio 221

Marketplace > College of Western Idaho > Biology > Bio 221 > Microbiology Chapter 4
Savannah Carter

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These are notes taken in the fourth week of class. Topics include structure, function, and life cycles of eukaryotic organisms (fungi, protozoa, helminths)
Teresa Rich
Class Notes
Microbiology, Biology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Microbiology: Chapter 4 – Eukaryotic Structure  History of Eukaryotes o Last Common Ancestor  All cells came from the last common ancestor  Characteristics common to bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes  Groups split up and developed their own unique characteristics o Endosymbiosis  One organism lives inside another one  The evolutionary development of different cell structures  Nucleus  Pinched off from the cytoplasm and surrounded DNA  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Pinched off from the cell membrane  Mitochondria  Was a prokaryotic organism that was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell  It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed  Produce ATP  Have their own DNA o Most closely related to E. Coli  Chloroplasts  A photosynthetic bacterium was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell  It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed  Have their own DNA o Most closely related to cyanobacteria o Multicellular Organisms  Most eukaryotes are unicellular  Most protozoa, fungi, and algae  Cells work together and each have their own jobs  Humans, plants, animals, some fungi, some algae  Eukaryotic Cell Structure o External Structures  Flagella  Bundles of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement o ATP is used to pull the bundles back and forth to move the cell  Bacteria Motion – turn 360 , like a propeller  Eukaryote Motion – wave back and forth  Cilia  Short flagella  Same arrangement – bundles of microtubules (9+2)  Move coordinately  Glycocaylx  Composed of polysaccharides  Same as the extracellular matrix  Functions  protection, attachment, communication o Boundary Structures  Cell Wall  Fungi Composition – chitin  Algae Composition – cellulose  Animals and protozoa never have cell walls  Cell Membrane  Phospholipid bilayer  Contains sterols o Provide stability (vital for cells without cell walls)  Semipermeable  Transmembrane Proteins o Move large substances in and out o Internal Structures  Nucleus  Contains DNA  Double membrane with pores  Contains nucleolus o Produces rRNA o Produces subunits of ribosomes  Endoplasmic Reticulum  The factory that makes things  Contains enzymes that synthesize molecules  Rough  studded with ribosomes, makes proteins, receive mRNA  Smooth  studded with enzymes, synthesize carbs and lipids  Golgi Apparatus  Post office that packages things  Enzymes modify macromolecules from the ER  Lysosomes  Contains digestive enzymes  Pinch off from the cell membrane  Vacuoles  UPS trucks that transport things  Can fuse with lysosomes  Pinch off from the cell membrane  Can contain food, waste, things that need to be moved in/out/around  Mitochondria  Energy producers  Smooth outer membrane  Folded inner membrane  Have their own DNA and 70S ribosomes  Chloroplasts  Oxygen producing photosynthesis  Inner and outer membrane  Have their own DNA and 70S ribosomes  Found in algae, plants, protozoa  Cells that have chloroplasts always have mitochondria too  Ribosomes  80S in eukaryotes  Make protein  Composed of protein and rRNA  Bound or free floating  Cytoskeleton  Gives support and shape to the cell  Can change the cell shape  Transports things around the cell  Composed of o Actin Filaments  smallest, cell division, contraction, extension, pinching off of lysosomes and vacuoles o Intermediate Filaments  structural reinforcement, cell to cell connections o Microtubules  largest, form the mitotic spindle, internal structure of cilia and flagella, structure for cells w/o a cell wall  Fungi o Characteristics  Eukaryotes  Chitin in cell walls  Do not photosynthesize  Absorb nutrients from the environment  Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mold and mushrooms) o Structure  Unicellular  Round  Yeast  Multicellular  Hyphae: long, branching filamentous cells o Combine to form mycelium: the vegetative part  Mycelium is visible to the naked eye  Dimorphic: sometimes like a yeast, sometimes like a mold  Yeast-like at body temperature  Mole-like at room temperature o Pathogens  Humans are very resistant to fungal infections  Most cause mild symptoms  Opportunistic pathogens: cause disease when they have an opportunity  People with compromised immune systems  After good bacteria are wiped out from antibiotics o Nutrition  Release enzymes into their surroundings to break down food into small enough molecules to be moved into the cell  Cell wall prevents large chunks  Saprobe: food is dead  Parasite: food is alive  “kings of digestive enzymes” o Benefits to Humans  Mushrooms  Add flavor to cheese  Make bread  Make beer and wine  Clean up natural disasters o Reproductive Strategies  Asexual Reproduction  Done by all fungi  A fungus clones itself through mitosis  Spore Formation  Resistant forms  Resist drying, lack of food  Sexual Reproduction  Combines 2 different genomes to create genetic diversity o Hope that the genetically different offspring will be better suited to the environment than either parent  Two of the same species fuse a haploid cell to create a new diploid cell  Diploid cell forms spores through meiosis that form new fungi  Protozoa o Organisms that do not fit in with other eukaryote groups o Locomotion  Pseudopods: temporary extensions of cells (false feet)  Engulf prey by wrapping their pseudopods around them  Cilia  Flagella  Non-motile – wait for the environment or a vector to move them o Nutrition  Heterotrophic: eat other creatures  Rather than making sugars from sunlight  Some non-pathogenic protozoa are photosynthetic  Mixotrophs: heterotrophic and photosynthetic o Habitat Range  Found anywhere moist  Cysts form in dry environments o Life Cycle  Alternate between TROPHOZITE (feeding stage) and CYST (resting stage)  Cysts are resistant to drying, lack of food, and are hard to kill o Classification of pathogens  Grouped by their method of motility  Sarcodina  Pseudopods  Ciliophora  Cilia  Mastigophora  Flagella  Sporozoa  Gliding  Helminths o General Worm Morphology  Cells don’t have cell walls  Multicellular  Animals  Groups  Roundworms (nematodes) o Most are nonpathogenic and essential to the environment  Flatworms o Flukes (trematodes) o Tapeworms (cystoids) o Life Cycle and Reproduction  Start as fertilized eggs/embryos  Develop into larvae  Matures into an adult that produces eggs o Schistosoma Life Cycle  Starts as a fertilized egg in a human intestine  Excreted into an aquatic environment  Egg develops into a larva and enters a snail  Develops into a second-stage larva and leaves the snail  Bores through the skin of the legs or feet of a human, enters the blood stream and looks for the intestine  Matures into an adult  Reproduces a large number of eggs hoping some will survive  Can last for years and cause chronic inflammation o Pin Worm Life Cycle  Causes inflammation of the intestine  A human swallows microscopic eggs picked up from another infected person  Eggs hatch in the intestine and release larva that mature into adults  Male and female worms mate  Female worm migrates out to the anus to deposit eggs  Eggs cause intense itchiness  Scratching contaminates the fingers, and everything they touch  Infects others and reinfects the original human o Distribution - Found everywhere humans live


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