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by: Paula Robertson

Tester History of Civ

Paula Robertson

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Robertson on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History of Civ at Bob Jones University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Who What When Where Why/ Importance B.C.E/ C.E. Culture Way of life invented by a group and passed on by teaching; learned not inherited. Paleolithic “Old Stone”. Earliest Age period in culture development began with the first use of stone tools. Neolithic Ages “New Stone”. 10,000 years ago when people living in some parts of middle east made advances in production of tools. Shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Civilization Stage in the evolution of organized society. Has Urbanism, long- distance trade, writing systems, technological and social development; life in cities, settled down living Bronze Age (3100-1200 BCE) Began with the increasing importance of metal that also ended the Stone Ages. Sumerians Mesopotam Founded Mesopotamian ia Cities; developed world’s first writing system, cuneiform Akkadians: Sargon First great conqueror of history. First empire. Amorites: Hammurabi Most famous king. Known for collection of laws “Code of Hammarabi”. Destroyed Mari and created a kingdom embracing most of Mesopotamia. Cuneiform First writing system. Several thousand characters, some stood for words and sounds. Not a language* Ziggurat Huge terraced mound of mud-bricks topped by a temple; high places of worship Epic of Babylon Babylonian tablets that Gilgamesh contain a story of The Great Flood. Egypt: Upper Egypt Narrow valley extends Nile 650 miles from Aswan to border of Lower Egypt. Egypt: Lower Egypt Nile’s 100 mile deep, Nile triangularly shaped delta. Menes King Egypt King who originally united Upper and lower Egypt. Old Kingdom Egypt Represents culmination of cultural and historical developments of Early Dynastic period. Unification of Egypt, pyramids, ended with civil warfare. Pyramids Egypt Reveal the power and resources of Old Kingdom Pharaohs; tombs for pharaohs. Filled with offerings Nomes Egypt Egyptian districts ruled by regional governors who were called nomarchs. Middle Egypt Thoughtful, care-worn, Kingdom brooding rulers instead of an absolute, distant God-king. (Founded by Amenumhet I) Arrival of Joseph** New Kingdom Egypt Imperial phase; conquest through Nile Valley and Palestine; recover of the empire. Israelites leave * . Contemporary with Hittites. Hyksos (Dynasty 15) Pharaoh Egypt “Chief of foreign lands” Ended Middle Kingdom Ahmose (Dynasty 18) Pharaoh Egypt First king of Dynasty 18, founder of New Kingdom Amunhotep IV: Pharaoh Egypt Declared Aten was the Akhenaten creator god. He and his queen (Negertiti) were sole mediators between Aten and people. Changed his name “effective spirit of Aten”. Tutankhamun Pharaoh Egypt Died prematurely; his tomb was the only royal tomb found intact, was not robbed. Hieroglyphics Egypt “Sacred carving”. Egyptian writing used to engrave holy texts. Hittite Empire Indo-European people; spoke a language related to Greek and Sanskrit. Adopted Mesopotamian writing and culture. First to work with Iron* Assyrian Brutal conquerors. Empire: Place of magnificent Nineveh palaces; destroyed by Medes under Nebuchadnezzar in 612 BEC Nebuchadnezzar Neo- Chaldean General who took over Babylonian much of the Assyrian empire empire; under him, (Chaldeans) Babylon became one of greatest cities in world. Captured Judah in 586 Persian Medes and Persians Empire united under reign of Cyrus II. Conquered more than any other empire. Cyrus King? Persia “The great” ruled with policy of toleration and restoration. Didn’t impose Persian religion on Israel. Demanded tribute and military service. Darius King Persia Reigned long and prosperously for 35 yrs. Brought the empire to its greatest extent. Launched first invasion of Greek peninsula. Ahura Mazda god Persia Chief diety (god) of Zoroastrianism, the native religion of Persia. The creator of the world, source of light and good. Satrap Persia Were allowed considerable freedom; ruled over city affairs and commanded the army, but king still exercised control. Zoroaster Prophet/teach Persia Great Religious prophet er and teacher who changed traditional Aryan worship. No more polytheism and no sacrifices. Avesta Persia Sacred book of Persians. Contained traditions and legends about Zarathustra, and law, litugy and teaching. Arameans Aramaic Semitic language spoken widely throughout Middle East in antiquity. Used an alphabet. Lingua franca = common tongue. Canaanite/ Phoenicians Seafaring people who scattered trading colonies from on end of Mediterranean to other Israelites God’s chosen people. Established a united kingdom under david and Solomon; kingdom split under solomon’s sons Abraham Israel Father of Israelite nation; from Ur and wandered west to tend his flocks in land of Canaanites. Moses Exodus from 1446 B.C. Israel Led Israelites out of Egypt Egypt and through wanderings in the desert until they reached Canaan. David and Solomon Israel Rulers during the peak of Israel’s united Kingdom. 722 B.C. Israel Northern Kingdom fell to Assyria. It’s people (10 lost tribes) were scattered and lost. 586 B.C. Israel Judah was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar; Solomon’s temple destroyed; thousands of hostages taken to Babylon. Monotheism Having faith in a single God. I LOVE YOU


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