The Mature Colonies
The Mature Colonies 1063
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Williams on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Professer Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Early U.S. History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 Monday September 12 th The Maturation of Virginia Key Questions: What characterized a mature colony? How did the process of maturation play out in Virginia? How and why did slavery emerge and what was its relation to this process of maturation? The Characteristics of a Mature Colony Effective governance People began to identify themselves as a part of the colonies rather than as English citizens. (“Virginians”) Each colony has experienced a “starving time” although the severities may have varied per colony, and has survived that time period in the growing of their colony. Jamestown’s starving time was more severe than Plymouth’s. Effective governance emerged at different times for each colony. Some had no problem establishing government quickly, whereas it may have taken others a while. For example, it only took Georgia 20 years, but it took Virginia 100 years. Social stratification More farmers are found throughout the colonies, and the land starts to become more valuable, therefore more expensive. Emergence of slavery/hardening of racial attitudes Some of the colonies had an economy based entirely off of slavery, particularly the states below Pennsylvania which was established by the MasonDixon line. There was racial hardening not only towards Africans but also towards Native Americans as well. Selfperpetuating population European style agriculture Colonies who were not mature had adopted Native American style agriculture. Mature looks in landscape/architecture Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 The European architecture went from huts and cabins to mills and brick homes. The Emergence of the Planter Elite 50 years after the charter for the Virginia Company was revoked, England had neglected the colony of Virginia. By 1626, 1,500 to 1,600 colonists were selfgoverned in Virginia, and they had established an economy based entirely off of the tobacco product. In 1639, the government had been sanctioned by the crown. There was a General Assembly, a governor, and the governor’s staff which is sort of similar to the President’s Cabinet members. These three oversaw the colony. Virginia was orderly but not just yet mature. Planters lived in modest homes with sparsely made furniture. The servants even ate with the families. The modern image of plantation homes as we know it do not emerge until the early 18 th century. Early 18 century plantation homes were cleaner and had a more equal gender ration among their slaves, making them selfperpetuating. The establishment of the social elite and the emergence of slavery coincide. Bacon’s Rebellion Tobacco could only be planted in the same field for 3 years, after which the field would lie empty. Farmers began moving farther and farther west to grab more land to plant more tobacco. Up to 20 acres or more was needed to produce enough tobacco for enough profit. Because of this, Indentured Servants could not get the land that was promised to them at the end of their servitude. They began having to compete with Native Americans with the remaining land in the western regions. Indentured servants who had completed their service but received no land became day laborers or tenant farmers. Tensions with the Native Americans and the social class emergence is mainly what caused the rebellion. Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 In 1675, a Native had taken some livestock from an Englishman, and as a retaliation from the English, the Natives were attacked. The people pleaded with their governor, William Berkley, to do something about the Natives, but the General Assembly only placed forts up to protect them and not the people who lived on the frontier. An army of both poor black and poor whites was assembled to push out the Natives. Nathaniel Bacon, the leader of the rebellion, was accused by the governor of waging war without consent. Berkley was accused by Bacon of nepotism and corruption which was true. In 1676, the town was burned. From this rebellion, we have learned that race can be used to unite people and the alienated, poor whites opposed the ruling class. Labor in a Tobacco Economy Tobacco is a very labor intensive crop. It requires the land to be cleared of trees, the seedlings must be raised before planting, it must be harvested by hand, weeds must be fought off, etc. Because it is so labor intensive, this crop eventually leads to slavery. Timing was everything when it came to planting tobacco. They usually began in February. The incentive to grow tobacco rose and it became harder and harder for the settlers to meet the rising demands of the tobacco product. The population was growing too slow too slow to have enough workers to work the land, and the English quickly learned that Native Americans would not work in the fields willingly. England was aware of slavery, but to the Old World, slavery was associated with the Spanish, not with the colonists from their land. The English particularly wanted English laborers – indentured servants. Indentured Servitude Indentured Servants saw opportunity in the New World – the chance to own land. They signed indentures, which were contracts. Therefore, the farmers would be purchasing a contract and not the person. Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 Indentured servants were not always growing tobacco. They could be house servants or assigned other jobs, but they were mostly growing tobacco. They only worked for a fixed amount of years. It usually was around about 7 years. Indentured servants were cheaper to buy than slaves. The farmers wanted to recreate the Old World by purchasing indentured servants, English laborers. The Chesapeake region was an extremely unhealthy place to live in, and the slaves died just as quickly as the English settlers did so they felt no reason to pay more for slave labor when slaves did not live longer than most indentured servants lived. th In the 17 century, there were very few slaves, but people of African descent varied widely. Free blacks had the same rights as free whites – they could participate in court, vote for governors, and even own their own slaves and indentured servants – before 1670. In 1670, laws began to emerge that discriminated towards blacks. It became illegal for blacks to control whites and for blacks to own any white laborers. Because of the establishment of the social elite, poor whites were being alienated and they therefore did things with other poor blacks such as got married, had kids, ran away together, etc. The English hated anyone that was not English. Origins of Slavery in the New World Because of the plague in England in 1665 and the Great Fire of London in 1666, indentured servants stopped coming all together by 1660. There were other places to live by 1660. The demand for labor was still rising. By 1650, colonial efforts in the West Indies depended completely on slavery. The Chesapeake eventually became a healthier place to live and the life expectancy of the colonists became higher. By the mid 1670s, slavery shot up. More slaves were important between 1695 and 1700 than in the last 20 years. There were more slaves imported between 1700 and 1705 than in the last 81 years. The tobacco economy was eventually entirely fueled by slaves. This is where the racial hardening sticks. Interracial marriage was prohibited. There were absolutely no indentured servants. Slaves were given ascribed statuses – their children were automatically slaves if their mothers were slaves. These laws laid the legal foundation down for slavery. Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 The main difference between slaves and indentured servants is that slaves were property that experienced violence and oppression. Indentured servants were just contracts. John Locke stated that the government’s job was to protect life, liberty, and property. Violence was normal to the settlers. They had a very casually violent society and mob violence was supported. For example, tarring and feathering was funny to them because the person looked like a chicken. The fact that the person often died was a fact that was disregarded to them. This highlights the fact that slavery did not emerge into the racism that we are accustomed to. It is actually the revers – racism emerged from slavery, not slavery from racism. West Africa on the Eve of Colonization Europeans justify slavery by just ignoring that part of their history. Mali was the most advanced place in the world. Cataract surgery was being done there, which not being done anywhere else in the world. A navigator name Muhammad from West Africa decided he wanted to sail the world. He did so, and historian think he landed off the coast of Brazil. Mansa Musa, emperor of Mali at the time, is the man particularly responsible for Europe’s interest in West Africa. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca and found 1500 tons of gold, causing prices to rise. This caught Europe’s attention. The Europeans were unable to plug into Mali, but they were able to plug into Elmina (the mine). Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 Wednesday September 14 th British North America at a Glance Key Questions: When and how did a distinctive African American culture emerge? How did the process of maturation look different in New England than Virginia? What characterized each region of colonial British America? Origins of Slavery in the New World Free blacks usually shared the same rights as free whites. The 1660s was when the first traces of discrimination began, when a law passing taking away blacks’ ability to control whites and own any white laborers. West Africa did practice slavery, but they preferred female workers over males whereas it was the opposite for the Europeans. They preferred males. Slavery also was not heredity in West Africa. Children born of slaves were not automatically slaves, but born as free members of society. In 1640, the slave trade explodes. Barbados has plenty of free people of African descent throughout the colony, but by 1650, there was over 20,000 slaves there. The Middle Passage was the transportation of slaves from West Africa to the Caribbean. The ships that transported the slaves were not clean and overcrowded. Because the Africans being transported were investments, if one were to get sick from the many diseases passed around the ships, they were often thrown overboard. Slaves had become commodity. The Triangle Trade was the trading routes between Africa, the New World, and Europe. African American Culture By the time of the American Revolution, the slave import business declines. Racial hardening coincides with the peak of the slave trade between 1725 and 1775. Africans coped with being slaves by establishing their own culture – a mix of both African and European original cultures – called African American culture. British North America was the only place in the world where there was a self perpetuating slave population. Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 Their culture showed through everything they participated in – the names of their children, funerals for loved ones, artistic motifs in their crafted belongings, the music they made, and their religious views. African American is not a synonym to black. The establishment of the African American culture showed that they were not completely define by their bondage. Their culture improved their lives and laid the foundation down for their lives as well. Maturation of New England New England had all the 6 characteristics that define a mature colony. Every colony had slaves although there were fewer in New England. The New England colonists held more racial hardening towards the Natives rather than the Africans. They used violence to “negotiate” with the Native early on. Pequot War – a war fought between the New England settlers and the Pequot Indians between 1637 and 1638. King Phillip’s War – a war between the Natives and the New England settlers; it was set off by the execution of a praying Indian, Indians who had converted to Christianity, by 3 other Natives. Based on the casualties of this war, this is the bloodiest American war in our history. The idea of a holy commonwealth and the utopian Christian “city on a hill” the Puritans dreamed of came to a halt with the Salem Witch Trials in the 1690s. The Salem Witch Trials: The Last Gasp of the Puritan State In 1692, some girls had a sleepover, and as a prank, the girls cracked open an egg and looked into it as if it were a crystal ball telling their fortunes. The Puritans associated fortunetelling with Satan, and the girls knew this so they were obviously just misbehaving. One of the girls claimed she saw a coffin; others claimed to be having nightmares and visions, so they all panicked. Tituba, a slave from West Africa, was accused of being a witch; she confessed, described what Satan looked like, and named two people who were also witches. The community searched high and large for the witches, for they saw this as a supreme test of their faith from God. Up to 150 people were in jail awaiting trial. 8 people had been executed all in one day. By the time it had Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 ended in October, 16 people had been executed and 2 others had died in jail awaiting trial. If this was a supreme test from God, then the Puritans had failed. The Salem Witch Trials created a more secular government and a decline in religious beliefs. 5 years later in January 1697, the colonists fasted to remember those who died in the trials. New England Colonies in a Nutshell Most of the colonies are religious spurred colonies whose colonists originated from Massachusetts. They were religious dissenters who either left or were exiled from Massachusetts. These colonies were Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. The colonists were industrious, hardworking, and neat planters. Livestock was the most important to them. They also participated in whaling because they used the oil from whales’ blubber to light their oil lamps. Trading was also highly important to them. They had an international port in the city of Boston. There were others but Boston was the most important because they traded with the West Indies for sugar and molasses. There were very few rich colonists. It mainly consisted of middle class settlers. Rhode Island was very independent and badly behaved. There was always trouble in Rhode Island up until the early republic. New Hampshire was a very isolated colony, and because of this, it didn’t mature up until the American Revolution. They never had their own government; it was shred with the Massachusetts colony. Connecticut was always fighting New York for Long Island. Only property owners were allowed to vote. If the governor was elected, the governor held no power. If the governor was appointed by the crown of England, the governor had the power of the crown behind him. The Middle (Atlantic) Colonies The middle colonies were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. New York was founded by the Dutch and originally called New Amsterdam. They had problems attracting people to their colony. Week of September 12 : The Mature Colonies 1063 Online Reader documents: 41, 42, 43, 47, 48 The colonists traded furs with the Natives, but this later ended because of the hostile relationships between the colonists and the Natives. The establishment of a colony was an afterthought to the settlers, for their first thought was to be successful and profitable in the spice trade in the Pacific. There were Dutch colonists in Long Island and Connecticut. The Dutch claimed Manhattan, but later traded it for an island that was dominating in the nutmeg trade. New York was a very aristocratic colony. New Jersey was a muddled mess. There was originally an East and a West Jersey that always bickered until they came together in 1702 and became New Jersey. William Penn was given a charter in 1681 to establish a colony, which was Pennsylvania. Delaware was added in 1682 as an extension on Pennsylvania. William Penn was a Quaker, who were being executed in England for not tying to the official Church of England. To Quakers, everyone had a divine light. The Bible was not infallible. There were no ministers, and they were against war and slavery. The women were allowed to have a say, they didn’t coerce church attendance, and there was no established religion. Because of their religion, Pennsylvania and Delaware were the most diverse colonies, and they had the best relationships with the Native Americans. Delaware was governed by Pennsylvania. There was religious toleration everywhere except New York. They had an Anglican Church. The Middle Colonies had excellent soil. This area became the first bread basket in the New World, growing and exporting wheat. The Middle Colonies were the most cosmopolitan.
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