Forensic Chapter 2
Forensic Chapter 2 Anth 357
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Hooper on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 357 at Towson University taught by Dana Kollman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Forensic anthropology in Anthropology/Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Forensic Science Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 2: The Forensic Science- The Intro I. Legal Considerations 1. Locard’s Theory of Exchange a. When someone comes into contact with a crime scene, they will leave something behind and take something with them. 2. Different ways to use evidence a. Link a suspect with a victim b. Link a suspect with a crime scene c. Link a victim with a crime scene d. Link crime scenes e. Prove or disprove the statement of a victim and of a suspect f. Eliminate a suspect g. Provide investigative leads h. Be revisited at a later point in time i. Provide evidence regarding the suspect’s method of operation (M.O.) j. Provide evidence that a crime has or has not occurred 3. Method of Operation (M.O.) a. Modus Operandi b. Features that the perpetrator sees as necessary for the execution of a crime and for remaining undetected. c. This can help link crimes. d. Examples of how to evaluate an MO Location of crime Point of entry Method of entry Tools used during crime Types of objects removed from a scene Time of day when crime occurred Suspect’s alibi Accomplices Mode of transportation Unusual characteristics of a crime. e. Different than a signature. f. Can change over time 4. Signature a. Psychologically rooted behavior b. It fulfills a psychological need Examples: mutilation of a body and taking trophies c. Remains the same; stable 5. Corpus Delecti a. Body of the crimes b. Aperson cannon be tried unless there is proof a crime has occurred. 6. Fruit of the poisonous tree a. Any evidence or info gained from an illegal search or seizure cannot be admitted into court. b. 4 exceptions Evidence was discovered as a result of an independent, untainted source. Evidence would inevitably have been discovered The chain of causation between the illegal action and the tainted evidence is too remote Asearch warrant not based on probable cause was execute in good faith. 7. Chain of custody a. Alog that is used to show that the evidence recovered from the crime scene is the same as that being presented in court. b. Dates, times, locations, names of people are documented c. It maintains integrity of the evidence. II. Evidence 1. Categories of Evidence a. Testimonial Spoken evidence statements from victims, suspects, and witnesses. b. Demonstrative Used to demonstrate to a jury what something looked like or to enhance the understanding of other evidence Sketches, photos, maps, models, and videos. c. Documentary Tangible communicative evidence Emails, texts, journal entries, and videotapes. d. Physical Tangible evidence used to prove a fact based on its physical or chemical characteristics Firearms, ammunition, tool marks, fingerprints 2. Subcategories of Physical Evidence a. Biological Comes from victims and suspects DNA, saliva, and blood b. Botanical Plants, pollen, and seeds c. Trace Examined with a microscope Glass, hair, and fibers d. Firearm and toolmark Firearms, ammo, gunshot residue, impressions form tools such as crowbars, screwdrivers, and hammers 3. Direct evidence a. Typically proves a fact without support b. Does not require an inference or an assumption 4. Circumstantial Evidence a. Requires an inference regarding the truth of the issue under contemplation 5. Relevancy a. Makes a fact an issue more likely than it would be without evidence Sways you one way or another Not all relevant evidence can be presented in court b. Examples Illegal searches Illegal seizures Broke chain of custody Discovery Privileges/Confidentiality 6. Irrelevancy a. Makes a fact an issue less likely than it would be without evidence Cannot be presented in court 7. Balancing Test a. The probative value of evidence cannot be outweighed by the probability if undue prejudice 8. Lay witnesses a. Offers info in court that is known or perceived through the senses b. Not testifying as an expert Need specialized knowledge to be an expert c. Can testify to experienced known to the general public on a daily basis 9. Expert Witness a. Holds knowledge above the lay witness and has been qualified by the judge to offer a testimony of opinion. b. Definition of an expert testimony Based on sufficient facts or data Is a product of reliable principles and methods Expert has applied these methods and principles to the facts of the case