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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Christina Ha

Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 1101

Christina Ha

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About this Document

Introduction to the Science of Psychology
Elementary Psychology
Kara A. Dyckman
Class Notes
Psychology, roots, Schools, Perspectives, Science, Scientificmethod, naturevsnurture, Descriptive, experimental, research, correlation
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
08/15/2016 Psychology  is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.  Scientific­ Answering questions based on meticulous and methodical  observation as well as data analysis  Behavior­ Observable activities  Mental Processes­ Thoughts and emotions Where Psychologists Work  Business/Government, K­12, Higher Education, Independent  Practice, Hospital, Other Human Services, Managed Care The Profession of Psychology  Areas of Specialization­ Clinical/Counseling,  Industrial/Organizational, Cognitive, Social/Personality, Educational,  School, Developmental, Other, Biology/Experimental  Basic Research  Applied Research Goals of Discipline of Psychology Describe behavior (report on what is being observed, kind of the first step,  think about basic sensory processes) Explain behavior (Why are they acting this way?, Where is this person  coming from?, Organize and understand why people are behaving in a  certain matter) Predict behavior (under what circumstances they might act again, when  they're going to have this behavior) Control behavior (Can I modify or change this behavior in some way?) Roots of Psychology ­ Philosophy Plato­ Truth and knowledge exist in the soul before birth NATURE Aristotle­ Empiricism. We know reality through perceptions and we learn  through experiences NURTURE (Everything has a nature and nurture component. Ex: Height) Rene Descartes­ Dualism: The mind and body interact as two separate  entities (Opposite is monism) Gustav Fechner­ Physiological Psychology: Study of the physical ability to  sense stimuli (Ex: What happens as light goes through your eye?) Psychology is Born  Wilhelm Wendt (1832­1920) Leipzig, Germany  First psychology research laboratory  University of Leipzig, Germany (1879)  Considered the "father of psychology"  Introspection (he would present stimuli to his participants and ask  them to describe their sensations, feelings and images) 8/17/16 Current Perspectives in Psychology  Psychoanalytic (Freud)­ Illustrates the underlying conflicts that  influence behavior.  Behavioral (Pavlov, Watson, Skinner)­ Explores human behavior as  learned primarily through associations, reinforces, and observation.  Humanistic (Rogers, Marlow)­ Focuses on the positive and growth  aspects of human nature.  Cognitive (Miller)­ Examines the mental processes that direct  behavior.  Evolutionary (Darwin)­ Examines characteristics in terms of how they  influence adaptation to the environment and survival.  Biological­ Uses knowledge about underlying physiology to explore  and explain behavior and mental processes. How do biological  factors, such as hormones, genes, anatomy, and brain structures,  influence behavior and mental processes?  Sociocultural (Vygotsky, Clark)­ Examines the influences of other  people as well as the larger culture too help explain behavior and  mental processes.  Biopsychosocial­ Investigates the biological, psychological, and  Sociocultural factors that influence behavior. Science and Psychology Psychology is driven by critical thinking: 1. Curiosity: to make yourself ask questions 2. Skepticism: you have to have a healthy degree of skepticism. Don't  look at everything negatively, but you should have a bit of  skepticism to find out if what is true or not 3. Humility: to be able to accept that your previous idea is wrong  Variable­ anything that can change o Ex: drug study testing whether or not your drug had a  therapeutic effect (less pain or not) o variable= one group gets drug, one group does not; continuous  variable= different dosages of the drug (now the variable is the  amount of the drug that you give)  Reaction time  Population­ what population of people am I interested in learning  about (ex: all people, all college students) o All the members of the group that you are interested in. You  cannot test every single person to get your results.  You need to take a sample of your population. o Random­ random number generator o Representative­ It has to be representative of the whole class  (Don't just pick the first two rolls of the class or only the  males in class)  Informed Consent­ First thing you do when you do a study: read and  sign a consent form. Researchers will tell you what you have to do  and you have to give consent.  o If at any time you feel uncomfortable, you can tell the  researchers and leave at any time.  o You have to give informed consent or it is NOT ethical.  Debriefing­ Sharing information with the participants after the study  has been completed.  o Sometimes, researchers cannot tell you everything at the  beginning of the experiment.  o Otherwise, you would be biased. But they have to tell you at the end of the study if you are interested. Methods of Research  Descriptive Research­ Describe what is happening; not trying to  manipulate anything; observing what has already happened  Naturalistic Observation­ Just watching them; observing what they do in their natural habitat; not to interfere at all  Laboratory Observation­ Descriptive, observing, seeing what people  are doing; more in a laboratory setting than strictly natural SELF­NOTES  Sigmund Freud­ Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconsciousness  Behaviorists are only interested in observable behavior  Structuralists are interested in the structure of consciousness  Functionalism­ consciousness is made up of an ever­changing  'stream' of thoughts" o Psychology should stress the study of how behavior and mental processes allow people and animals to adapt to their  environments  Biological­ hormones, genes, and the brain, are involved in behavior  and cognition  Humanistic psychology­ human nature is essentially positive, and that people are naturally inclined to grow and change for the better and  that theories that presume the lack of control people have over their  lives are wrong 8/19/16 Descriptive Methods  Naturalistic Observation (observing animals in their natural habitat;  how people were observing Los 33; how do people behave in this  type of situation?)  Laboratory Observation (similar to naturalistic observation, but it is in  a more controlled setting; can introduce variables if you want to)  Case Study (where you study one person extensively and in depth)  Survey: descriptive studies; not trying to manipulate anything; not  receiving treatment or anything done to you; they're just trying to get  information; describe and explore new behaviors; CAN NOT state  cause and effect Correlational Analysis  Correlational method is a way to examine relationships among  variables.  Descriptive only!!!  Correlation does not prove causation. o Ex: (1) Low self­esteem could cause depression OR o (2) Depression could cause low self­esteem OR o (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause  low self­esteem and depression Psychological Research  Experiment­ a type of research that manipulates a variable of interest  (independent variable) to uncover cause­and­effect relationships Participants Group Independent  Dependent  variable variable Age 8 Experimental Breast Milk Intelligence  score Age 8 Control Formula Intelligence  score  Random Assignment­ controlling for other variables such as parental  intelligence and environment Experimental Method  Placebo­ An inert substance given to members of the control group;  the fake treatment that has no benefit, but is administered as if it does  Double­blind study­ type of study in which neither the researchers  who are administering the independent variable nor the participants  know what type of treatment is being administered  Experimental bias­ researchers' expectations that influence the  outcome of a study Ethics in Psychological Research  Institutional review board­ Professional group that reviews the safety,  consideration of participants  Common ethical guidelines: 1. Rights and well­being of participants weighed against the study's  value. 2. Informed consent. 3. Deception must be justified. 4. Participants may withdraw at any time. 5. Participants protected from risks. 6. Investigator must debrief participants. 7. Data must remain confidential.  Animal research­ attempt to answer questions not obtainable with  human research  o Avoid exposure to unnecessary pain or suffering; used in  approximately 7% of psychological studies


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