Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 1101
Popular in Elementary Psychology
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
08/15/2016 Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Scientific Answering questions based on meticulous and methodical observation as well as data analysis Behavior Observable activities Mental Processes Thoughts and emotions Where Psychologists Work Business/Government, K12, Higher Education, Independent Practice, Hospital, Other Human Services, Managed Care The Profession of Psychology Areas of Specialization Clinical/Counseling, Industrial/Organizational, Cognitive, Social/Personality, Educational, School, Developmental, Other, Biology/Experimental Basic Research Applied Research Goals of Discipline of Psychology Describe behavior (report on what is being observed, kind of the first step, think about basic sensory processes) Explain behavior (Why are they acting this way?, Where is this person coming from?, Organize and understand why people are behaving in a certain matter) Predict behavior (under what circumstances they might act again, when they're going to have this behavior) Control behavior (Can I modify or change this behavior in some way?) Roots of Psychology Philosophy Plato Truth and knowledge exist in the soul before birth NATURE Aristotle Empiricism. We know reality through perceptions and we learn through experiences NURTURE (Everything has a nature and nurture component. Ex: Height) Rene Descartes Dualism: The mind and body interact as two separate entities (Opposite is monism) Gustav Fechner Physiological Psychology: Study of the physical ability to sense stimuli (Ex: What happens as light goes through your eye?) Psychology is Born Wilhelm Wendt (18321920) Leipzig, Germany First psychology research laboratory University of Leipzig, Germany (1879) Considered the "father of psychology" Introspection (he would present stimuli to his participants and ask them to describe their sensations, feelings and images) 8/17/16 Current Perspectives in Psychology Psychoanalytic (Freud) Illustrates the underlying conflicts that influence behavior. Behavioral (Pavlov, Watson, Skinner) Explores human behavior as learned primarily through associations, reinforces, and observation. Humanistic (Rogers, Marlow) Focuses on the positive and growth aspects of human nature. Cognitive (Miller) Examines the mental processes that direct behavior. Evolutionary (Darwin) Examines characteristics in terms of how they influence adaptation to the environment and survival. Biological Uses knowledge about underlying physiology to explore and explain behavior and mental processes. How do biological factors, such as hormones, genes, anatomy, and brain structures, influence behavior and mental processes? Sociocultural (Vygotsky, Clark) Examines the influences of other people as well as the larger culture too help explain behavior and mental processes. Biopsychosocial Investigates the biological, psychological, and Sociocultural factors that influence behavior. Science and Psychology Psychology is driven by critical thinking: 1. Curiosity: to make yourself ask questions 2. Skepticism: you have to have a healthy degree of skepticism. Don't look at everything negatively, but you should have a bit of skepticism to find out if what is true or not 3. Humility: to be able to accept that your previous idea is wrong Variable anything that can change o Ex: drug study testing whether or not your drug had a therapeutic effect (less pain or not) o variable= one group gets drug, one group does not; continuous variable= different dosages of the drug (now the variable is the amount of the drug that you give) Reaction time Population what population of people am I interested in learning about (ex: all people, all college students) o All the members of the group that you are interested in. You cannot test every single person to get your results. You need to take a sample of your population. o Random random number generator o Representative It has to be representative of the whole class (Don't just pick the first two rolls of the class or only the males in class) Informed Consent First thing you do when you do a study: read and sign a consent form. Researchers will tell you what you have to do and you have to give consent. o If at any time you feel uncomfortable, you can tell the researchers and leave at any time. o You have to give informed consent or it is NOT ethical. Debriefing Sharing information with the participants after the study has been completed. o Sometimes, researchers cannot tell you everything at the beginning of the experiment. o Otherwise, you would be biased. But they have to tell you at the end of the study if you are interested. Methods of Research Descriptive Research Describe what is happening; not trying to manipulate anything; observing what has already happened Naturalistic Observation Just watching them; observing what they do in their natural habitat; not to interfere at all Laboratory Observation Descriptive, observing, seeing what people are doing; more in a laboratory setting than strictly natural SELFNOTES Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis focuses on the unconsciousness Behaviorists are only interested in observable behavior Structuralists are interested in the structure of consciousness Functionalism consciousness is made up of an everchanging 'stream' of thoughts" o Psychology should stress the study of how behavior and mental processes allow people and animals to adapt to their environments Biological hormones, genes, and the brain, are involved in behavior and cognition Humanistic psychology human nature is essentially positive, and that people are naturally inclined to grow and change for the better and that theories that presume the lack of control people have over their lives are wrong 8/19/16 Descriptive Methods Naturalistic Observation (observing animals in their natural habitat; how people were observing Los 33; how do people behave in this type of situation?) Laboratory Observation (similar to naturalistic observation, but it is in a more controlled setting; can introduce variables if you want to) Case Study (where you study one person extensively and in depth) Survey: descriptive studies; not trying to manipulate anything; not receiving treatment or anything done to you; they're just trying to get information; describe and explore new behaviors; CAN NOT state cause and effect Correlational Analysis Correlational method is a way to examine relationships among variables. Descriptive only!!! Correlation does not prove causation. o Ex: (1) Low selfesteem could cause depression OR o (2) Depression could cause low selfesteem OR o (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause low selfesteem and depression Psychological Research Experiment a type of research that manipulates a variable of interest (independent variable) to uncover causeandeffect relationships Participants Group Independent Dependent variable variable Age 8 Experimental Breast Milk Intelligence score Age 8 Control Formula Intelligence score Random Assignment controlling for other variables such as parental intelligence and environment Experimental Method Placebo An inert substance given to members of the control group; the fake treatment that has no benefit, but is administered as if it does Doubleblind study type of study in which neither the researchers who are administering the independent variable nor the participants know what type of treatment is being administered Experimental bias researchers' expectations that influence the outcome of a study Ethics in Psychological Research Institutional review board Professional group that reviews the safety, consideration of participants Common ethical guidelines: 1. Rights and wellbeing of participants weighed against the study's value. 2. Informed consent. 3. Deception must be justified. 4. Participants may withdraw at any time. 5. Participants protected from risks. 6. Investigator must debrief participants. 7. Data must remain confidential. Animal research attempt to answer questions not obtainable with human research o Avoid exposure to unnecessary pain or suffering; used in approximately 7% of psychological studies
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