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September 14 Notes

by: Kendall Notetaker

September 14 Notes 206

Kendall Notetaker
Texas A&M
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About this Document

Lecture Notes for September 14 Had to leave 10 minutes early for a meeting!
American National Government
John Bond
Class Notes
constitution, political, Government




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 206 at Texas A&M University taught by John Bond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
September 14, 2016 Notes 2. Ratify Amendments c. States must approve all changes 1) ¾ states must ratify amendment (38 states) d. Policies of ratification 1) The constitution does not say anything about how long states have to ratify 2) Usually at the end of the amendment it mentions a time period, congress decides 3) Not known for sure if states can change their mind when ratifying amendments  Congress proposed equal rights amendment for women because it was called for by both parties. It was shot down and brought back years later  At year 6 there were 33 states who ratified it, opposition force was able to grow in strength  Passed a separate resolution saying it was null and void after 7 years  Congress wanted to add 3 more years and they did it by a majority vote  In those additional years not a single extra state ratified the amendment  Opposition played into the fear of husbands by saying women will be drafted into the military and would be hanging out with horny soldiers  2 of the states that ratified it in the early years changed their minds and took away their vote  You can probably go from no to yes, but not yes to no 4) Congress decides on how long and if states can change their mind 5) Odds for success are very low after 2 years 6) Originally 12 amendments proposed for Bill of Rights 7) Median: 25 months B. Four Other Processes of Change 1. Formal amendments are only process of constitutional change 2. Custom and Usage a. practices and institutions evolve in response to political needs and alter the operation of the govt. b. Examples: 1) Political parties (written nowhere in the constitution)  Framers did not like political parties and Washington warned the evil of them in his farewell address  The same men who hated political parties were the ones who started political parties  Political parties determine the Speaker of the House, chair & nominate the committees, president is voted upon 2) Operation of the Electoral College  Electoral college is in the constitution  They cast votes for president and vice president 3. Executive Interpretation a. Types of Power 1) Enumerated powers: in Article 1 “Congress has the power to…..” 2) Implied Powers: broad grants of power, not specific or written down “necessary and proper” September 14, 2016 Notes 3) Inherent or Prerogative powers: just there because of the nature of the office, not spelled out b. Political powers of the president have expanded tremendously through executive interpretation of inherent powers 1) Only 2 amendments dealing with president c. Examples 1) Executive privilege 2) Dismiss high ranking members of the executive branch 4. Legislative Interpretation a. When congress enacts laws it must interpret the Constitution 1) Congress has passed a lot of laws regulating interstate commerce and it says nowhere that they have the power to do so  Said it was a tax 2) Does the proposed law violate some negative restriction? b. some laws are so far reaching that they alter the functions & responsibility of govt. 1) Social Security Act 1935 2) Employment Act 1946 3) Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) 5. Judicial Interpretation a. Judicial Review b. Different Interpretation of same words at different times c. Examples: 1) Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 2) Brown v. Board of Education 1954


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