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BIOL 201, Chapter 3 notes

by: Kayla Wisotzkey

BIOL 201, Chapter 3 notes BIOL 201-015

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 201-015 > BIOL 201 Chapter 3 notes
Kayla Wisotzkey

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 3 and are taken from both the lab and the textbook.
Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics
Cheryl D. Warren
Class Notes
Biology, Macromolecules
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 3  Carbon: the building blocks of life ­carbon atoms can form up to 4 covalent bonds  ­hydrocarbons: molecules consisting of just Hydrogen and Carbon; store a lot of energy,  make good fuels, and are nonpolar ­functional group: a molecular group attached to a hydrocarbon that confers chemical  properties or relativities (Ex. Hydroxyl…OH) ­isomer: one of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition, but differing in  structural arrangement (Ex. Glucose and Fructose) 1. Structural isomers: different in the structural order 2. Stereoisomers: different in how the groups that are attracted to the skeleton are  arranged in space, but same order ­chiral compounds: characterized by their effect on polarized light 1. Dextrorotatory: moves light to the right 2. Levorotatory: moves light to the left  Polymer: long molecule built by linking together a large number of smaller units called  monomers ­Two reactions involving polymers: 1. Dehydration reaction: to form a covalent bond between two monomers, an OH  group is removed from one monomer and an H atom is removed from the  other(removal of H 2), MONOMERSPOLYMERS 2. Hydrolysis: to dissemble polymers into monomers, a molecule of water is  added…an H atom is added to one subunit and an OH group is added to the other, POLYMERSMONOMERS  Carbohydrates: all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio ­the building blocks of carbohydrates are sugars ­contain many carbon­hydrogen bonds which release energy when oxidation occurs; good energy storers ­monosaccharides: simplest carb, classified by the location of the carbonyl group ­glucose: best 6­carbon monosaccharide for energy storage b/c it has 6 C­H bonds ­disaccharides: used for sugar transport and energy storage, made my linking two  monosaccharides together, hold energy well b/c enzymes cannot break their bonds ­polysaccharides: long polymers made of many monosaccharides that have gone through  dehydration synthesis, main polysaccharides include: 1. Starch: energy storage in plants 2. Cellulose: structural support in plants, make up cell walls 3. Chitin: structural support in fungi and arthropods 4. Glycogen: energy storage in animals  Nucleic Acids: serve as templates for producing exact copies of themselves, allow  genetic materials to be preserved during cell division and reproduction ­the building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides ­The covalent bonds between two nucleotides are called phosphodiester bonds ­nucleotide structure: phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar (either ribose (RNA) or  deoxyribose (DNA)), and a nitrogenous base ­The two main types are DNA and RNA: 1. RNA: carries genetic information, helps with protein synthesis and gene  expression ­messenger RNA (mRNA) consists of single­stranded portions of DNA, which is  the blueprint for the amino acids of proteins ­ribosomal RNA (rRNA) helps build the structure of ribosomes ­transport RNA (tRNA) transports the amino acids to the cite of protein synthesis ­There are two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides: a) Purines: Adenine and Guanine, two rings b) Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil, one ring 2. DNA: where the genetic information is stored ­its shape is a double helix... the spiral shape is made as the nucleotides twist  around each other ­Each step of DNA’s staircase is composed of a base pair: Cytosine and Guanine  pair up as well as Thymine and Adenine (connected by hydrogen bonds)  Proteins: linear polymers made of amino acids ­Functions of proteins: 1. Enzyme catalysis: enzymes are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions by  stressing certain chemical bonds 2. Defense: some globular proteins use their shapes to recognize cancer and foreign  cells and keep them out of the bloodstream (immune system) 3. Transport: membrane transport proteins move ions and molecules across the cell  membrane 4. Support: protein fibers provide structure to different parts of the body 5. Regulation: proteins turn on and shut off genes during development and serve as  messengers between cells (hormones) 6. Motion: contractile proteins move materials within cells, actin and myosin help  muscles contract 7. Storage: Ca and Iron are stored in the body by binding to storage proteins ­Classes of amino acids: a) Nonpolar amino acids: contains CH or C2  3  b) Polar uncharged amino acids: contains O or OH c) Charged amino acids: contains acids or bases d) Aromatic amino acids: contains a carbon ring with alternating single and double  bonds; nonpolar e) Special functioning amino acids: have unique properties  More facts about proteins ­peptide bond: the covalent bond that links amino acids together, forms when the amino  end of one amino acid joins to the carboxyl group of another ­Polypeptide: the long, unbranched chains that compose proteins ­The SHAPE of a protein determines its FUNCTION ­Almost all amino acids in a protein are nonpolar because of water’s tendency to avoid  nonpolar molecules ­denaturation: when a protein unfolds and loses its shape because of changes in the  protein’s environment  Lipids: a group of molecules that are insoluble in water ­the building blocks of lipids are fatty acids ­When lipids are put into water, the lipid molecules cluster together and expose their  small polar groups to the water, and confine their nonpolar parts within the cluster ­lipids are good energy­storers because they have so many H­C bonds ­terpenes: long chained lipids that comprise pigments like chlorophyll (Ex. Rubber) ­steroids: lipids composed of 4 carbon rings (Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen) ­prostaglandins: have two polar tails attached to a five Carbon ring; act as local chemical  messengers in many vertebrae tissues ­Structure of a phospholipid: 1) glycerol: forms the backbone; a 3 Carbon alcohol, in which each carbon bears a  hydroxyl group 2) fatty acids: attached to the glycerol, long chains of CH2 (hydrocarbon chains) ending in a COOH (carboxyl group) 3) phosphate group: attached to one end of the glycerol, usually has a charged orgainic  particle attached to it  


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