BIOL 201, Chapter 3 notes
BIOL 201, Chapter 3 notes BIOL 201-015
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 3 Carbon: the building blocks of life carbon atoms can form up to 4 covalent bonds hydrocarbons: molecules consisting of just Hydrogen and Carbon; store a lot of energy, make good fuels, and are nonpolar functional group: a molecular group attached to a hydrocarbon that confers chemical properties or relativities (Ex. Hydroxyl…OH) isomer: one of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition, but differing in structural arrangement (Ex. Glucose and Fructose) 1. Structural isomers: different in the structural order 2. Stereoisomers: different in how the groups that are attracted to the skeleton are arranged in space, but same order chiral compounds: characterized by their effect on polarized light 1. Dextrorotatory: moves light to the right 2. Levorotatory: moves light to the left Polymer: long molecule built by linking together a large number of smaller units called monomers Two reactions involving polymers: 1. Dehydration reaction: to form a covalent bond between two monomers, an OH group is removed from one monomer and an H atom is removed from the other(removal of H 2), MONOMERSPOLYMERS 2. Hydrolysis: to dissemble polymers into monomers, a molecule of water is added…an H atom is added to one subunit and an OH group is added to the other, POLYMERSMONOMERS Carbohydrates: all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio the building blocks of carbohydrates are sugars contain many carbonhydrogen bonds which release energy when oxidation occurs; good energy storers monosaccharides: simplest carb, classified by the location of the carbonyl group glucose: best 6carbon monosaccharide for energy storage b/c it has 6 CH bonds disaccharides: used for sugar transport and energy storage, made my linking two monosaccharides together, hold energy well b/c enzymes cannot break their bonds polysaccharides: long polymers made of many monosaccharides that have gone through dehydration synthesis, main polysaccharides include: 1. Starch: energy storage in plants 2. Cellulose: structural support in plants, make up cell walls 3. Chitin: structural support in fungi and arthropods 4. Glycogen: energy storage in animals Nucleic Acids: serve as templates for producing exact copies of themselves, allow genetic materials to be preserved during cell division and reproduction the building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides The covalent bonds between two nucleotides are called phosphodiester bonds nucleotide structure: phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar (either ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA)), and a nitrogenous base The two main types are DNA and RNA: 1. RNA: carries genetic information, helps with protein synthesis and gene expression messenger RNA (mRNA) consists of singlestranded portions of DNA, which is the blueprint for the amino acids of proteins ribosomal RNA (rRNA) helps build the structure of ribosomes transport RNA (tRNA) transports the amino acids to the cite of protein synthesis There are two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides: a) Purines: Adenine and Guanine, two rings b) Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil, one ring 2. DNA: where the genetic information is stored its shape is a double helix... the spiral shape is made as the nucleotides twist around each other Each step of DNA’s staircase is composed of a base pair: Cytosine and Guanine pair up as well as Thymine and Adenine (connected by hydrogen bonds) Proteins: linear polymers made of amino acids Functions of proteins: 1. Enzyme catalysis: enzymes are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions by stressing certain chemical bonds 2. Defense: some globular proteins use their shapes to recognize cancer and foreign cells and keep them out of the bloodstream (immune system) 3. Transport: membrane transport proteins move ions and molecules across the cell membrane 4. Support: protein fibers provide structure to different parts of the body 5. Regulation: proteins turn on and shut off genes during development and serve as messengers between cells (hormones) 6. Motion: contractile proteins move materials within cells, actin and myosin help muscles contract 7. Storage: Ca and Iron are stored in the body by binding to storage proteins Classes of amino acids: a) Nonpolar amino acids: contains CH or C2 3 b) Polar uncharged amino acids: contains O or OH c) Charged amino acids: contains acids or bases d) Aromatic amino acids: contains a carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds; nonpolar e) Special functioning amino acids: have unique properties More facts about proteins peptide bond: the covalent bond that links amino acids together, forms when the amino end of one amino acid joins to the carboxyl group of another Polypeptide: the long, unbranched chains that compose proteins The SHAPE of a protein determines its FUNCTION Almost all amino acids in a protein are nonpolar because of water’s tendency to avoid nonpolar molecules denaturation: when a protein unfolds and loses its shape because of changes in the protein’s environment Lipids: a group of molecules that are insoluble in water the building blocks of lipids are fatty acids When lipids are put into water, the lipid molecules cluster together and expose their small polar groups to the water, and confine their nonpolar parts within the cluster lipids are good energystorers because they have so many HC bonds terpenes: long chained lipids that comprise pigments like chlorophyll (Ex. Rubber) steroids: lipids composed of 4 carbon rings (Ex. Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen) prostaglandins: have two polar tails attached to a five Carbon ring; act as local chemical messengers in many vertebrae tissues Structure of a phospholipid: 1) glycerol: forms the backbone; a 3 Carbon alcohol, in which each carbon bears a hydroxyl group 2) fatty acids: attached to the glycerol, long chains of CH2 (hydrocarbon chains) ending in a COOH (carboxyl group) 3) phosphate group: attached to one end of the glycerol, usually has a charged orgainic particle attached to it
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