Meteorology Class Notes Week 4
Meteorology Class Notes Week 4 metr 121
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to metr 121 at Western Kentucky University taught by Rezaul Mahmood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see METEOROLOGY in Science at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Day #6 9/12/16 Week #4 Notes Meteorology Class Lecture: Chapter 2 Continued How Earth’s energy is balanced? Incoming Solar Energy - Constant at the top of the atmosphere - Solar constant =1367 w/m2 - Scattered light (deﬂected by particles) Reﬂected Light Albedo of Earth is 30% Why does Earth have seasons? - Earth revolved around the sun in an elliptical path - Earth comes closer to the sun in January - Earth’s tilt/angle - Earth’s curvature - Distance from the sun does not cause the seasons Angle at which sunlight reaches Earth Beam spreading: same amount of energy to be spread over a larger area Beam Depletion: scattering, reﬂection, absorption Length of Daylight hours - More sunlight=more energy received at the surface - The amount of daylight hours changes through the year as the direction of the sun and angle change Chapter 3 Lecture Begins Objectives: Air Temperature variation - Daily: mechanisms for warming - Annual: seasonal changes, seasonal lag Seasonal Changes Astronomical Winter: dec. 21 Spring: Mar. 20 Summer: Jun. 21 Fall: Sep. 22 Meteorological Winter: Dec/Jan/Feb Spring: Mar/Apr/May Summer: Jun/Jul/Aug Fall: Sep/Oct/Nov Lag in Seasonal Temperature Solar Radiation maximum on June 21, Air temperature maximum not until July/August Daytime Warning Starts at sunrise, solar radiation warms the ground. Warmest at surface, decrease rapidly. Average Lapse Rate: 6.5 degree C/1000 ft. 3.6 degree F/1000ft Lapse rate with no wind, lapse rate very high Convection by wind: more mixing Factors that impact max. temp. (day) Clouds Land Types (water bodies, vegetations, deserts) Atmospheric Advection Nighttime Cooling: Starts to cool at sunset Radiational Cooling: both air and ground but at different speed Ground=a better radiator Near Surface Temperature at Night: temperature increases with height (inversion) -very light/no wind -atmosphere is stable Air is a bad conductor Temperature transfer can happen due to convection Radiational Inversion: coldest at the surface, temperature increases with height Factors: -air is dry -air is calm -night is long -cloud cover Daily Temp Ranges: inversion in the morning, stable around 8am, lapse occurs most at 12pm, lapse continues but slows around 3pm, inversion begins again around 9pm Lag of Daily Temp: Between the time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum air temperature Control Factors of Air Temperature (Globally) 1)latitude 2)land and water distribution 3)ocean currents 4)elevation Isotherms: lines of equal temperature
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