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Chapter 1

by: Francesca Harris

Chapter 1 LING 306

Francesca Harris
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This is Chapter 1 in the text! It's all of the main points
General Linguistics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Francesca Harris on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 306 at George Mason University taught by Wulf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 1  What is Linguistics? o The study of how language works  properties of the world's languages  abilities and adaptation of language  Specialization For Language o Evolution gave speech organs dual purpose  eating and breathing  speech and language  ex: tongue: survival- moves food from the teeth into the throat; speech- articulates vowels and consonants o Language is more than sound; this includes gestures, body posture and facial expression  Creative System o Language needs to be creative (( freedom to make and understand new words and sentences )) o Creativity of language o 2nd language defining characteristics  The presence of systematic constraint that make boundaries where progression can grow  Nouns used as verbs o Freedom to innovate in the formation  Ex: She Houdini’d her way out of the locked closet. o Limits also exist; new verb rarely is made if a word with the same meaning  Ex: jail the robbers= to jail the robbers NOT prison the robber because to prison the robbers means to be imprisoned therefore that cannot be valid o Special constraints- time related  Ex: Julia summered in Paris **only pertains to a specific interpretation (specific time period) o English word form, words can recognized as possible words  Ex: [YES] prasp, flib, traf; [NO] prsap, bfli, ftra o Everyday speech and written academia allow for different sentence combinations  Ex: This dog frightened the cat that chased a mouse;  Sometimes it's NOT acceptable: Frightened dog this the cat that chased mouse a  Grammar and Linguistics Competence o Linguistic Competence- the production of unlimited utterances and recognition of unacceptable utterances o Grammar- the mental system that allows human being to form and interpret the wounds, words, and sentences of the language o **Components of Grammar**  Phonetics- articulation and perception of speech sounds  Phonology- patterns of speech sounds  Morphology- word formation  Syntax- sentence formation  Semantics- interpretation of words and sentences o **5 points as to why grammar is important to analyzing linguistics  1. All Languages Have A Grammar (Generality)- each spoken language must have a system with knowledge of sound+meaning for form+ structure **No languages are without grammar**  2. All Grammars Are Equal (Parity)- no such thing as good/bad grammar; main point of grammar is to tell the speaker how to form+interpret the words+sentences of the language.  Linguists are to figure out how grammar works; not rate different languages  3. Grammars Are Alike In Basic Ways (Universality)- principles+properties that are shared by all human languages exist; there are universal constraint on how words can be put together to form a sentence  4. Grammars Change Over Time (Mutability)- within limits, grammar of a language is always changing; ex: i will not say the words (new) VS. i will say not the words (old)  5. Grammatical Knowledge Is Subconscious (Inaccessibility)- knowledge of grammar: you can’t figure how it works just by thinking about it. *** read the summary at the end of the chapter***


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