New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Geog 1113K Notes- Week 4 (Wed)

by: Victoria Koehl

Geog 1113K Notes- Week 4 (Wed) GEOG 1113

Marketplace > Georgia State University > GEOG 1113 > Geog 1113K Notes Week 4 Wed
Victoria Koehl
GPA 3.79

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes talk more about weathering, mass movement, and slopes
Introduction to Landforms
Larry Kleitches
Class Notes
geography, weathering, Slopes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Landforms

Popular in Department

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Koehl on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1113 at Georgia State University taught by Larry Kleitches in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


Reviews for Geog 1113K Notes- Week 4 (Wed)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/14/16
Geog 1113 Notes­ Braking Up is Hard to Do Part 2  Weathering is the breakdown and alteration of rocks and minerals at or near the Earth's surface by  exogenic processes into products that are more in equilibrium with conditions found in this  environment  The exogenic system: external processes that set air, heat, and water into motion, powered  by solar energy  Most rocks and minerals are formed deep within the Earth's crust by endogenic processes (internal heat and plate tectonics), where temperatures and pressures differ greatly from the surface  The physical and chemical nature of materials formed in the Earth's interior are characteristically  in disequilibrium with conditions occurring on the surface  Due to this disequilibrium, these materials are easily attacked, decomposed, and eroded by various chemical and physical surface processes  Weathering works towards low relief (elevation), little change, and the stability of sequential  landscapes  Physical and chemical weathering processes are important to the overall reduction of the  landscape and the release of essential minerals from bedrock  Highways in cold climates appear rough and broken, older marble structures dissolved by  rainwater, or the roundness of a rock formation  A simple examination of soil gives evidence of weathered mineral grains from many diverse  sources  This leads to downslope movement of rock or soil as a more or less coherent gathering known as  mass movement or mass wasting  The erosional processes that reduce a landscape like the Grand Canyon are balanced against the  resistance of the materials that make up the landscape  Weathering and erosional forces naturally oscillate, especially in the desert, with high rainfall  variability coming in episodic thunderstorms  Denudation is a general term referring to all processes that cause reduction or rearrangement of  landforms  The principal denudation processes affecting surface materials include weathering, erosion, and  deposition  Weathering is greatly influenced by the character of the bedrock: hard or soft, soluble or insoluble, broken or unbroken; the differing resistance of rock result in differential weathering  Interactions between the structural elements of the land and denudation processes are complex ,  and represent a constant struggle between internal and external processes  The dynamic equilibrium model is a balancing act between tectonic uplift and reduction by  weathering and erosion, between the resistance of crust materials and the work of denudation  processes  Landscapes evidence ongoing adaptation to rock structure, climate, local relief, and elevation  A dynamic equilibrium demonstrates a trend over time  Endogenic events (earthquakes/volcano eruptions), or exogenic events (forest fire/rainfall),  may provide new sets of relationships for the landscape  As changing conditions provide new sets of relationships for the landscape, the system eventually  arrives at a geomorphic threshold  That point at which the system breaks through to a new set of equilibrium relationships and  rapidly realigns landscape materials accordingly  A slope in disequilibrium goes through compensating adjustment  Slopes, as parts of landscapes, are open systems and seek an angle of equilibrium among the  forces described here  Conflicting forces work together on slopes to establish an optimum compromise incline that  balances these forces  A geomorphic threshold is reached when any of the conditions in the balance is altered  Many factors could alter a hillside's equilibrium such as an earthquake, or the building of a  house or dam (adding mass); all the forces on the slope compensate by adjusting to a new  dynamic equilibrium  The relationship between rates of weathering and breakup of slope materials shapes slopes  A slope is stable if its strength exceeds these denudation processes and unstable if materials  are weaker than these processes  Spheroidal weathering:  Water penetrates joints and fractures and dissolves the rock's weaker minerals or cementing  materials  The resulting rounded edges are the basis for the name spheroidal weathering  Spheroidal weathering is an example of the wat chemical weathering attacks rock  The sharp edges of a rock are rounded as the alteration of minerals progresses through rock  The joints in the rock thus offer more surfaces of opportunity for weathering  Carbon compounds react with carbonic acid, created when water vapor dissolves carbon dioxide  Carbonic acid is strong enough to react with many minerals, especially limestone, in a process  known as carbonation  When rainwater attacks formations of limestone, the constituent minerals are dissolved and wash  away with the mildly acidic rainwater  All mass movements occur on slopes, the steepness of a slope determines where loose material  comes to rest depending on the size and texture of the grains; this is called the angle of repose, this angle represents a balance of driving and resisting forces  The driving force in mass movements is gravity, working in conjunction with the weight, size, and shape of the grains or surface material, the degree to which the slope is over­steepened, and the  amount and form of moisture available  The greater the slope, the more susceptible the surface material is to mass movement 2  The resisting force is the shearing strength of slope material, its cohesiveness and internal friction  working against mass movement  To reduce shearing strength is to increase shearing stress, which eventually reaches the point at which gravity overcomes friction  Four basic classifications of mass movement are used: fall, slide, flow, and creep  Each involves the pull of gravity working on a mass until the critical shearing strength is reduced  to the point that the mass falls, slides, flows, or creeps downward  A rockfall is simply a quantity of rock that falls through air and hits a surface  During a rockfall, individual pieces fall independently and characteristically form a pile of  irregular broken rocks called a talus cone at the base of a steep cliff  The hot eruption of Nevado del Ruiz liquefied mud and volcanic ash, sending a hot mudflow  downslope  Such a flow is called a lahar, an Indonesian word referring to flows of volcanic origin  The lahar killed over 23,000 people in the village of Armero  The last eruption occurred 140 years earlier  Large open­pit strip mines­ such as the Bingham Copper Mine and the Berkeley Pit, are examples  of human­induced mass movements, called scarification  At the Bingham Copper Mine, a mountain was literally removed  The disposal of tailings and waste material is a significant problem with such large excavations  because the tailing piles prove unstable and susceptible to further weathering, mass wasting, or  wind dispersal 3


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.