Lifespan notes week 5
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 5 (cont.) 9/14/16 Sensorimotor stage (0-24 months) (cont.) • Substages (cont.) o 4. Coordinating activities (8-12 months) § Example: moving a blanket to get a toy § Coordination of schemes § A-not-B error: show a toy hidden in location A several times. Hide it in location B and if can’t immediately search for it, then search in location A (might be a memory problem though) § We know infants have an idea of object permanence by about 4 months (test: car down include, but hidden at one point; track infant’s eyes) o 5. Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) § Experimentation § Deliberate variations in behavior o 6. Symbolic (mental) representation (18-24 months) § Includes deferred imitation: repetition of other’s behaviors after it has occurred (driving or talking on the phone) § Beginning of thoughts/language • Use of sign language as young as 6 months suggests earlier abilities Limitations of Piaget’s work (across all ages, but especially sensorimotor stage) • Too much emphasis on motor ability led to… • His timing being off, which led to… • Him seeing development as more stage-like (discontinuous) than it actually is • ***Exam question!!*** o Is Piaget’s idea more stage-like or continuous? o Answer: stage-like Information processing approach to cognitive development • Uses a computer programming analogy • Cognitive development is seen as a process that occurs over time (**continuous) • Three major processes are: o Encoding: how we take in information § Depends in part on what we attend to o Storage: saving material in memory – how long and how much we can remember § As babies get older, they can remember how to kick to get a mobile to move after longer and longer periods of time have elapsed o Retrieval: recovery of stored information § When babies (or adults) are given “hints” they can retrieve information after longer periods of time o These processes can be relatively automatic, or rather deliberate § Automatization: the degree to which an activity requires attention (from high to low) § Some things, like categorization of objects (dogs) and even elementary understanding of amounts, can be high on automatization – by 5 months (relies on object permanence as well) Language Development • Comprehension (receptive language) earlier than production (expressive language) • Stages o Pre-linguistic communication includes sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, cooing (2 months) and babbling (2-3 months through first years) § Babbling involves making speech-like sounds – initially vowels, then add consonants § Babbling initially sounds the same world over, but changes at around 6 months to reflect the culture’s language o First words (10-14 months) § Mostly objects initially § May also be holophrases “mama” – what might that mean? “Ball?” o First sentences § 2 or more words § Telegraphic speech o Errors include over-extension (overgeneralizing use of word) or underextension (uses word too restrictively) • Origins of Language Development o Learning theory: kids learn from reinforcement § Not well supported § Kids pick up grammar often seemingly automatically, come up with novel phrases, and learn too many words too quickly for this to work completely o Nativistic approach: says we are genetically prewired for language § Chomsky’s theory § Partially true o Interactionist approach: nativistic plus exposure and reinforcement in a general way § Most “true” theory • Speaking to children o Infant (or child)-directed speech: high pitch, short, simple sentences, range of frequencies, intonation more varied § We used to call that motherese, but that is sexist – dads can do it too § Why is this best?? Because infants prefer it and extensive exposure is related to early acquisition of words and linguistic competence o
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