Chapter 2 and 3 notes
Chapter 2 and 3 notes BIOL 1441
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madalyn on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 2 and 3 BIOL 1441 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 8:10 PM ~Concepts and notes~ Ch. 2 Electronegativity- the attraction of a given atom Electrons behave like particles and waves. RECAP: For the electrons in a covalent bond This is called wave and particle duality; a quantum mechanical property. Atomic number- number of protons AND electron (if element is neutral in charge) Mass number- number of neutrons and protons Neutrons- Atomic number - Mass number *Electronegativity * Atoms are the smallest unit of Sodium matter. 2 or more 23 - Mass number atoms that are 11 - Atomic Number formed together are called Energy absorbed molecules. The more right you go, The more up you go, The more electronegative An element will be Ionization- the energy required to Fluorine is the most electronegative Remove an electron Bonds Energy lost The name's Bond…. Covalent Band…. (haha) Nucleus Covalent bonds SHARE valence electrons. Sharing is Caring. They can share 1 (single) or 2 (double) valence electrons. Hydrogen Bonds Forms when a hydrogen atom covalently is bonded to one Ionic Bonds electronegative atom. Has a weak bond These bonds are called electron transfer between 2 atoms; this creates ions *ions are charged atoms and have more or fewer electrons than usual. Ionic compounds are often called salts… Cations are positive ions (lose 1 electron) and anions are negative ions (gain 1 electron) Chapter 3 - Water Water is POLAR. MEANING; its charge Water has a high specific heat. What does that mean? Is not evenly distributed. It can release stored heat into cooler air. Think of when Hydrophobic and -Philic You touch an iron pot that is hot on the stove, but the water is Somewhat lukewarm. Water takes longer to heat up than the iron pot Hydrophobics tend to aggregate in aqueous solutions. MEANING, it will ** calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g NOT dissolve in water. Oil is Of water by 1 degree Celsius** hydrophobic Cohesion - bonding of a high percentage of the molecules to Hydrophilics tend to love water. But neighboring molecules don’t dissolve. Think of it like absorbing water. Cotton towels This Is primarily due to hydrogen bonding absorb water; for example. THE 3 Ss' Surface tension- SOLUTE and SOLVENT and SOLUTION How hard it is Ice floats on water since To break the surface Salt dissolving in Water. Salt would be the Of a liquid SOLUTE. Water is the SOLVENT (think that you can't dissolve ice is less dense water) SOLUTION - liquid that is a homogenous mixture **NOTE: daltons = the AQUEOUS SOLUTION - water is the solvent Molecular weight in Atomic Mass Units; meassured in g/mol. Acid- substance that increases ACIDS and BASES and the PH scale So basic y'all The H+ concentration of a solution EQUATION to find pH Base- substance that reduces the H+ concentration of a solution pH= -log[H+] Strong acids and bases dissolve completely in H2O **put the exponent in the [x]** 0 EXAMPLE: [H+] = 10^-7 The scale goes from 0-14. 14 being very basic and 0 being very acidic. SO, pH = 7 … or you can just take it from PURE water is neutral, it’s a 7 on the scale. The exponent … 2 Stomach acid is usually 2. Ch. 2^M 3 Page 1 pH= -log[H+] Strong acids and bases dissolve completely in H2O **put the exponent in the [x]** 0 EXAMPLE: [H+] = 10^-7 The scale goes from 0-14. 14 being very basic and 0 being very acidic. SO, pH = 7 … or you can just take it from PURE water is neutral, it’s a 7 on the scale. The exponent … 2 Stomach acid is usually 2. Stomach Acid Buffers - buffers are a substance that minimize the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution Ocean acidification The main reason why Ocean acidification (O.A.) exists, or is caused by, is CO2 CO2 reacts with H2O and forms carbonic acid. Then, the carbonic acid breaks down into - 2- H+ and HCO . 3he added H+ combines with the carbonate ions in the ocean, CO , form3ng even more 7 Water HCO .3Therefore, these is less carbonate ions to help form corals and shells for crabs. The more you pollute, the less ocean there is… 13 Bleach 14 Ch. 2^M 3 Page 2
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