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Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

by: Brittany Warren

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes BSC 1005

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > BSC 1005 > Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
Brittany Warren

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About this Document

From the first chapter of the textbook.
Lab-BIOL 1005-010
Diane Lowell
Class Notes
Biology, Science, Lifescience
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Warren on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 1 Textbook Notes Aug. 31, 2016 Intro:  Coffee may help prevent diseases such as Parkinson Disease  “Coffee-overdoses” and caffeine-related problems have increased  Reason behind the “caffeine causes pancreatic cancer” debate: confusion over the nature of science and the meaning of the scientific method o Large amount of debate and opinions from different sources confuse the public o Most information reported is incorrect, incomplete or misleading  Depending on how much coffee a person drinks and how healthy the person is, is the reason why there are so many contrasting theories Science is a Process:  Science is a way of knowing and a method of seeking information based on experimentation and observation  Anecdotal evidence: unreliable because it is based on personal findings and is not proven in a scientific manner o Example: gathering a poll from classmates  Peer review: experts review an article before it is published to take out irrelevant information, sloppy research, and overstated claims; to ensure the integrity of the journal o To limit bias in an article, the author must declare all conflicts and name all sources  Caffeine is a stimulant  A scientific hypothesis must be reliable and falsifiable: it can be established or rejected by experiments  Pseudoscience: opinions and hypotheses that are based on supernatural or mystical explanations that cannot be proven true o Example: astrology  A hypothesis cannot be proven once and for all  Experimental group: the group in the experiment that experiences the manipulation  Control group: the group in the experiment that experiences no manipulation o The comparison group; should be in every experiment; the group that could possibly take the placebo  Independent variable: the factor that is purposely changed  Dependent variable: the measured result of an experiment; the outcome that “depends” on the independent variable  Experiments must be repeated by other scientists Size Matters:  Sample size: number of experimental subjects  The larger the sample size, the more statistical significance the experimental has o Confidence in an experiment  When statistics are said keep in mind the sample size Chapter 1 Textbook Notes Aug. 31, 2016  Everyday theory is based on personal experience and knowledge, whereas scientific theory is proven by experiments  Scientific theory: explanation that is widely supported in the scientific community This Is Your Brain on Caffeine:  Caffeine boosts memory, mental and physical performance, and stamina  Caffeine works by countering the actions of adenosine o Adenosine: a chemical in the brain that is a type of neurotransmitter; the body’s natural “sleeping-pill” o Caffeine blocks the drowsiness caused by adenosine  Caffeine consumption has increased in the last 25 years – mainly by young people  Recommended safe dose of caffeine for an adult is 400mg/day  Excess of caffeine can lead to anxiety, jitters, heart palpitations, trouble sleeping, dehydration, etc. Finding Patterns:  Epidemiology: study of patterns of diseases in populations; phenomenon that cannot be directly experimented on o Advantages: inexpensive, study factors that are considered harmful; can use time and power to their leisure o Most health studies  Occurrence and progression of many diseases are based on sex age genetics, and exposure to bacterial and environmental chemicals  Still no direct conclusion that caffeine prevents diseases in men and women  Randomized Clinical Trial: controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experiment treatment or a standard treatment for a placebo  Correlation does not equal causation o Correlation between two variables does mean that one causes the other


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