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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Christina Ha

Chapter 2 Notes PSYC 1101

Christina Ha

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Biology and Behavior
Elementary Psychology
Kara A. Dyckman
Class Notes
brain, neuron, neural, communication, Supportingsystem, behavior
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
8/22/2016 Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior  Neuroscience: Involves study of the brain and nervous system  Biological psychology: Focuses on how the brain and other biological  systems influence human behavior  Phrenology and ablation­ Taking a piece of your brain out and seeing  what happens with your functioning o generally done with animals such as rats Looking at brain structure  CAT (computerized axial tomography): uses x­rays  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): gets a better picture of the  anatomy of the brain by creating a magnetic field that passes through the brain  EEG (electroencephalogram): watching brain function by puting  electrodes on people’s heads and measuring the electrical activity  coming from the brain  PET (positron emission tomography): tracer is injected into  bloodstream and tracked while the subject performs a task  fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging): uses the same MRI  machine but is slightly different; flow of oxygen­rich blood increases  to areas of brain that are active during a task Neurons and Neural Communication  Cell body (soma)  Dendrites­ bringing information into the cell body; receive messages  Axon­ can receive information from lots of different sources; sends or  transmits messages from cell body to terminal buds  Terminal buds­ transmit messages to other neurons  Myelin sheath­ fatty substance that provides insulation Glial Cells  Glial cells serve as the "glue" of the nervous system, providing  cohesion and support for the neurons o Classes of glial cells  Microglia: works to defend brain from infection and  inflammation  Astrocytes: restores barrier between brain and blood;  supports communication between neurons  Schwann: produce myelin that envelops axons When Neurons Activate  Each neuron either fires (action potential: spike in electrical energy  that passes through the axon of a neuron) or it doesn't.  o The way that we do anything or how we store knowledge or pull up a memory is all just which neuron is firing at any given time.  At rest, it is more negative inside the neuron than it is on the outside.  What makes it more negative? There are different concentrations of  ions inside and outside.  Resting voltage: ­70mV  Action potential (AP) becomes depolarized (less negative); some  channels have opened up and positive sodium ions come in  If you get enough positive neurons in there, it reaches the threshold  potential (­55mV) What happens next? 1. AP reaches the terminal buds. 2. AP triggers vesicles to release neurotransmitters into synaptic gap. 3. Then, the neurotransmitters bind to receiving dendrites. 4. This causes the positively charged particles to enter the cell and an  AP is created. 5. After binding, neurotransmitters are reabsorbed or diffuse out of  synaptic gap.  The terminal end of one neuron will be very close to the dendrite of  another neuron.   The neurons are not touching each other; space in between is called  the synapse. 8/24/2016 The Supporting Systems  Brain needs supporting infrastructure to carry out directives and relay  essential information from outside  Central nervous system (CNS): made up of the brain, which is  encased in the skull, and the spinal cord (communication between the brain and PNS), which is encased in the vertebrae  Peripheral nervous system (PNS): includes all the neurons that are  not in the CNS and is divided into two branches o Somatic nervous system o Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic nervous system  Parasympathetic nervous system The Spinal Cord and Reflex Arc 1. Heat activates sensory neurons 2. Sensory neurons carry information from environment to interneuron in  spinal cord. 3. Interneuron in spinal cord activates motor neuron. 4. Motor neuron excites muscle, inflating motion that pulls hand away. 5. Brain receives message. Two Hemispheres  Right Hemisphere­ controls left side of the body  Left Hemisphere­ controls right side of the body  Our brains are contra laterally organized. Penfield's Map Language areas and the brain  Broca's area: plays a critical role in language production,  Wernicke's area: plays a critical role in language comprehension  For most people, the left hemisphere controls language.  The Hemispheres: Split Brain  Hemispherectomy: surgery to remove half the brain o Exceptionally rare; last resort  Callostomy (split­brain operations): Right and left hemispheres are  disconnected by cutting the corpus callosum


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