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History 1311 Chapter 2

by: Sarthak Notetaker

History 1311 Chapter 2 History 1311

Sarthak Notetaker

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These notes are a summary of notes i took from the lecture and made from the textbook.
American History
Dr Christopher Morriss
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarthak Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr Christopher Morriss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see American History in History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 2 Mediterranean trade and European Expansion. th th  From the 12 to the 15 century, silk, ivory, carpets, spices and gold travelled from Persia, India, China to the continent Europe. Primarily Italian merchants in Venice, Pisa and Genoa dominated these trades.  In the mid 14 century, the black plague killed more than one third or Europe’s population, which meant the resources in Europe had increased for the survivors. This insecurity and uncertainty of some Europeans allowed them to explore the world through sea routes. Portuguese Exploration  Portugal cooperated with Spain in the Reconquest, which was centuries long drive to expel Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula.  Prince Henry (1415-1460) the navigator, son of the Portuguese king, collected latest information about sailing techniques and geography, supported new crusades against the Muslims and sought fresh sources to collect for the Portuguese pocketbooks, which allowed Portuguese explorers to sail farther beyond.  When the Portuguese sailors left to sail around the African continent they had no idea of how large it was (more than 7 thousand miles)  By 1434 they reached the northern coast of the Sahara desert and then in 1444 reached Cape Verde  To store resources for such long periods of time the Portuguese developed the Caravel, which was a fast sturdy ship which allowed them to sail as far as Congo.  In 1460, the Portuguese used African slaves to develop sugar plantations in Cape Verde.  Portuguese explorers had to find a way to Asia to bypass Mediterranean merchants by 1480.  In 1498 Vasco da Gama commanded the fleet to sail to India and by the 16 century Portuguese controlled the commercial empire in India, Indonesia and China, which they referred to as the East Indies. The explorations of Columbus Columbus’ false calculations made him believe that Asia was only 2500 miles away from Europe if he sailed west. In 1492 after many unsuccessful attempts to convince the Portuguese, Spanish, English and the French, he finally got his trip sponsored by the Spanish monarchs: queen Isabella and king Ferdinand. Columbus landed on a tiny Caribbean island and named in San Salvador in the honor of Spain. The people on the island were Tainos (good and noble) With this information, the Portuguese feared that there territories were in jeopardy and in 1491; Spain and Portugal negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas. Columbus died in 1506 and had returned to Spain twice from the West or the New World. Columbus’ discovery forced the 16 century sailors to think about the world in new ways; that it was possible to sail from Europe to the Western rim of the Atlantic and return to Europe. Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange 1497-King Henry the seventh of England sent John Cabot to the Northwest across the Atlantic and reached Newfoundland, which he believed was Asia. 1499-Spanish expedition landed on the northern coast of South America with Amerigo Vespucci an Italian businessman. 1500-Portuguese accidently made a landfall on the east cost of Brazil. In 1507. A German cartographer published the first map that showed the new world, which was not connected, to Asia, which he named America for Amerigo Vespucci. The Atlantic Ocean that isolated America from Europe became an aquatic highway once Columbus anchored the western end. This new sea bridge launched the Columbian exchange, a transatlantic trade of goods and people. Spaniards brought novelties to the New world like Christianity, horses, iron technology, sailing ships and also unknowingly carried many old world diseases that caused epidemics like killing large number of Indians in the 16 century. Spanish Exploration and Conquest Spain became the most powerful monarchy in Europe and Americas, during the new world. 1504- Arrival of Hernan Cortes, who fought the conquest of Cuba and the Caribbean. August 1519- Cortes marched inland to find Montezuma, emperor of Tenochitlin, capital of the Mexican empire. November 8 1519- Cortes reached Tenochitlin and met Montezuma and held him hostage. June 30 1520 – Cortes fled to Tlaxcala (bitter enemies of Mexico) and regrouped there. Spring of 1521 Cortes and thousand Indian allies attacked Mexico. August 13 1521- Cortes defeated the last Mexican defender. Spaniards had superior military technology to defeat so many Indians in their home turf. The search of other Mexicos In search of gold, Spanish conquerors fanned out across Mexico in search of some treasure. The most spectacular prize fell to Francisco Pizarro who conquered the Incan empire in Peru. 1532- Francisco held Atahualpa (emperor of the Incan empire) hostage. This made other sailors explore for more to get more wealth and power. 1521- Juan Poce de leon, The Spanish that discovered and named Florida. Lucas Vazquez explored the Atlantic coast; South Carolina and a few years later, 1526, started a settlement on the Georgia coast, which died of sickness. Spanish in New Mexico and Florida Acoma pueblo revolt: Revolt against the Spaniard by the Indians living at the Acoma Pueblo in 1599. Juan de Onate suppressed the uprising revolt but the Indians, later that year, revolted again, which made the Spaniards, return to Mexico. New Spain New Spain: Land in the new world held by the Spanish crown. They pioneered techniques of using new world colonies to strengthen the kingdom in Europe. Encomienda (also used by the Aztaks): It allowed the Spanish (encomiendero) to collect tribute from a town in return for providing law and order and encouraging Indians to covert to Christianity.  The most important treasure that Spain could get from the New World was not gold but uncompensated Indian labor.  In 1549, Repartimiento began to replace encomiendo.  A lot Spanish men moved to these colonies after 1492 the men married Indian women in the colony and their children were mezitos. The relatively small number of Spanish women married the men and their child was a creole: which are children born in the New World to Spanish men and women. Toll of Spanish conquest and colonization. By 1560, major Indian civilizations had been conquered by the Spaniards. But with these Europeans came diseases like measles, small pox etc. By 1570, about 90% of the indian population had died from these diseases which meant Spain’s most valuable treasure, which was labor dwindled. This loss of labor made Spanish colonists import African slaves. Sixteenth Century Europe and New Spain. King Charles I (grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand) became king of Spain in 1516. 1517- Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation, which divided Protestants from Catholics. 1524- France sailed for the Atlantic coast of North America for lands from North Carolina to Canada looking for the Northwest passageway. 1576- The English attempts to follow Spain’s lead and try to find the Northwest passageway. Sir Humphrey Gilbert led expeditions in 1578 and 1583 that weren’t of any benefit. Sir Walter Raliegh organized an expedition in 1585 to settle the Roanoke Island off the coast now known as North Carolina. In 1587, Walters sent and group of more than 100 settlers to Roanoke under John White’s leadership. When John White went back to England to get more supplies and returned in 1590, the settlement had disappeared with the word CROATOAN carved in a tree.


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