CDFR Chapter 3: Prenatal
CDFR Chapter 3: Prenatal CDFR 2000
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Archana Hegde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Child Development I: Prenatal through Middle Childhood in Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 3: Prenatal Development Why have children? Personal factor called childbearing motivations – each person's disposition to respond positively or negatively to the idea of parenthood- affects people's decision to have children as well as their psychological adjustment to pregnancy and the new baby's arrival Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenthood Mentioned by American and European Adults of Childbearing Age (in general order of importance Advantages o Giving and receiving warmth and affection, providing care and teaching o Personal fulfillment, enhancing life's meaning o Creating one's own family o Nurturing a new person and personality o Being accepted as a responsible and mature member of the community o Having a source of caregiving and economic support in times of need o Carrying on one's family name, lineage, heritage, or values o Strengthening the couple relationship through a shared project o Fulfilling a partner's desire for parenthood Disadvantages o Constant worries over and responsibility for children's health, safety, and well-being o Role overload- not enough time to meet both child-rearing and job responsibilities o Risks of bringing up children in a world plagued by crime, war, and pollution o Fear that children will turn out badly, through no fault of one's own o Financial strain o Reduced time to spend with partner o Loss of privacy How large a Family? More couples today get divorced before their childbearing plans are complete Prenatal Development Conception Ovaries: two walnut-sized organs located deep inside her abdomen, and is drawn into one of two fallopian tubes – long, thin structures that lead to the hollow, soft-lined uterus While the ovum is traveling, the spot on the ovary from which it was released, now called the corpus luteum, secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum Cervix is the opening of the uterus Vast changes that take place during the 38 weeks of pregnancy are usually divided into three phases: o The germinal period o The period of the embryo o The period of the fetus Female Reproductive Organs Zygote o As the zygote moves down the fallopian tube, it duplicates, at first slowly and then more rapidly Blastocyst o By the fourth day it forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball, called a blastocyst o The inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism o The outer cells, or trophoblast, will provide protective covering Implantation o At the end of the first week, the blastocyst begins to implant in the uterine lining Milestones of Prenatal Development First trimester o Prenatal phase: Germinal Week 1: The one-celled zygote multiplies and forms a blastocyst Week 2: The blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining. Structures that feed and protect the developing organism begin to form- amnion, chorion, yolk sac, placenta, and umbilical cord o Prenatal phase: Embryo Weeks 3-4 ¼ inch (6mm) A primitive brain and spinal cord appear Heart, muscles, ribs, backbone, and digestive tract begin to develop Weeks 5-8 1 inch (2.5cm); 1/7 ounce (4 g) Many external body structures (face, arms, legs, toes, fingers) and internal organs form The sense of touch begins to develop, and the embryo can move o Prenatal phase: Fetus Weeks 9-12 3 inches (7.6 cm); less than 1 ounce (28 g) Rapid increase in size begins Nervous system, organs, and muscles become organized and connected, and new behavioral capacities (kicking, thumb sucking, mouth opening, and rehearsal of breathing) appear External genitals are well-formed, and the fetus's sex is evident 2 Trimester o Prenatal phase: Fetus Weeks 13-24 12 inches (30 cm); 1.8 pounds (820 g) The fetus continues to enlarge rapidly In the middle of this period, the mother can feel fetal movements Vernix and lanugo keep the fetus's skin from chapping in the amniotic fluid Most of the brain's neurons are in place by 24 weeks Eyes are sensitive to lights, and the fetus reacts to sound 3 Trimester o Prenatal phase: Fetus Weeks 25-38 20 inches (50cm); 7.5 pounds (3,400 g) The fetus has a good chance of survival if born during this time Size increases Lungs mature Rapid brain development, in neural connectivity and organization, enables sensory and behavioral capacities to expand In the middle of this period, a layer of fat is added under the skin Antibodies are transmitted from mother to fetus to protect against disease Most fetuses rotate into an upside-down position in preparation for birth Germinal Period Germinal period lasts about two weeks The zygote's first cell duplication is long and drawn out; it is not complete until about 30 hours after conception Blastocyst is a hollow, fluid-filled ball Embryonic disk: The cells on the inside of the blastocyst Embryonic disk will become the new organism; the thin outer ring of cells, termed the trophoblast Implantation Between the seventh and ninth days, implantation occurs: The blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining Trophoblast (protective outer layer) multiplies fastest o It forms a membrane, called the amnion, the encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the women's movement A yolk sac emerges that produces blood cells until the developing liver, spleen, and bone marrow are mature enough to take over this function The placenta and umbilical cord Protective membrane- the chorion, which surrounds the amnion From the chorion, the fingerlike villi, or blood vessels, emerge By bringing the mother's and the embryo's blood close together, the placenta permits food and oxygen to reach the developing organism and waste products to be carried away Chorionic villus sampling is the prenatal diagnostic method that can be performed earliest, at nine weeks after conception The placenta is connected to the developing organism by the umbilical cord, which first appears as a primitive body stalk and, during the course of pregnancy, grows to a length of 1 to 3 feet The umbilical cord contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products Period of the Embryo The period of the embryo lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy During these brief six weeks, the most rapid prenatal changes take place, as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs Last half of the first month In the first week of this period, the embryonic disk forms three layers of cells o The ectoderm: will become the nervous system and skin o The mesoderm: from which will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs o The endoderm, which will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and gland These three layers give rise to all parts of the body At first, the nervous system develops fastest The ectoderm folds over to form the neural tube, or spinal cord Second month Growth continues rapidly Period of the Fetus The period of the fetus, from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy, is the longest prenatal period During this "growth and finishing" phase, the developing organism increases rapidly in size, especially from the ninth to the twentieth week The third month Prenatal development is sometimes divided into trimesters, or three equal time periods At the end of the third month, the first trimester is complete The second trimester 17-20 weeks Mother can feel its movements A white, cheese like substance called vernix protects its skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid White, downy hair called lanugo also appears over the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin Glial cells, which support and feed the neurons, continue to increase at a rapid rate throughout the remaining months of pregnancy, as well as after birth Neurons begin forming synapses, or connections, at a rapid pace The third trimester During the final trimester, a fetus born early has a chance for survival The point at which the baby can first survive, called the age of viability, occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks The cerebral cortex, the seat of human intelligence, enlarges Synchrony between fetal heart rate and motor activity peaks: A rise in heart rate is usually followed within five seconds by a burst of motor activity Around 30 weeks, fetuses presented with a repeated auditory stimulus against the mother's abdomen initially react with a rise in heart rate, electrical brain-wave recordings, and body movements Then responsiveness gradually declines, indicating habituation (adaptation) to the sound Simple familiar melody (descending tones) versus an unfamiliar melody (ascending tones) Prenatal environmental influences Teratogens The term teratogen refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period Teras means malformation or monstrosity Teratogens depend on o Dose Larger loses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects o Heredity Some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments o Other negative influences The presence of several negative factors at once o Age Sensitive period concept refers to a limited time span in which a part of the body or a behavior is biologically prepared to develop rapidly In the germinal period, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact Embryonic period is the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down During the fetal period, teratogenic damage is usually minor Biology and environments Consistent attention to diet, weight, fitness, and distress-controllable factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease, adult-onset diabetes and cancer Bidirectional influences between child and environment Prescription and nonprescription drugs Sedative called thalidomide was widely available in Canada, Europe, and South America Gave birth defects to about 7,000 infants worldwide Many of these children scored below average in intelligence Drug damaged the central nervous system directly, by modifying the expression of genes involved its development Another medication, a synthetic hormone called diethylstilbestrol (DES), was widely prescribed between 1945 and 1970 to prevent miscarriages Currently, the most widely used potent teratogen is a vitamin A derivative called isotretinoin, prescribed to treat severe acne and taken by hundreds of thousands of women of childbearing age in industrialized nations Many women do not know that they are pregnant during the early weeks of the embryonic period, when exposure to medications (and other teratogens) can be of greatest threat Illegal drugs Effects may contribute to an array of cocaine-associated physical malformations, especially of the central nervous system and heart; brain hemorrhages and seizures; and growth retardation Marijuana, is used more widely than heroin and cocain Tobacco Nicotine, the addictive substance in tobacco, constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus, and causes the placenta to grow abnormally o Reduces the transfer of nutrients Passive smoking is also related to low birth weight, infant death, childhood respiratory illnesses, and possible long-term attention, learning, and behavior problems Alcohol Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term that encompasses a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure 3 severities of FASD o Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Distinguished by Slow physical growth Pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings; a thin upper lip; a smooth or flattened philtrum, or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip) Brain injury, evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning- for example, memory, language and communication, attention span and activity level (overactivity), planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) Distinguished by Two of the three facial abnormalities just mentioned Brain injury, again evident in at least three areas of impaired functioning Mothers of children with p-FAS generally drank alcohol in smaller quantities, and children's defects vary with the timing and length of alcohol exposure o Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) At least three areas of mental funcitoning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities Prenatal alcohol exposure, though confirmed, is less pervasive than in FAS Even mild drinking, less than one drink per day, is associated with reduced head size (a measure of brain development), slow body growth, and behavior problems No amount of alcohol is safe Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Criteria for Diagnosis Slow physical growth o FAS Facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, thin upper lip, smooth or flattened philtrum) o FAS- all three present o P-FAS: Two of the three are present Brain injury o FAS: impairment in a minimum of three areas of funcitoning o P-FAS: Two of the three are present o ARND: Impairment in a minimum of three areas of functioning Radiation Ionizing radiation can cause mutation, damaging DNA in ova and sperm Environmental pollution Astounding number of potentially dangerous chemicals are released into the environment In the 1950s, an industrial plant released waste containing high levels of mercury into a bay providing seafood and water for the town of Minamata, Japan For many years, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used to insulate electrical equipment, until research showed that, like mercury, they entered waterways and the food supply Another teratogen, lead, is present in paint flaking off the walls of old buildings and in certain materials used is industrial occupations Prenatal exposure to dioxins – toxic compounds resulting from commercial waste incineration and burning of fuels, such as coal or oil- has particularly injurious effects Effects of some infectious diseases during pregnancy Viral o Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Miscarriage Physical malformations (possible) Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Chickenpox Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Cytomegalovirus Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes) Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Mumps Miscarriage No physical malformations No intellectual disability No low birth weight and prematurity o Rubella (German measles) Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity Bacterial o Chlamydia Miscarriage Physical malformations are possible No intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Syphilis Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity are possible o Tuberculosis Miscarriage Physical malformations are possible Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity Parasitic o Malaria Miscarriage No physical malformations No intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity o Toxoplasmosis Miscarriage Physical malformations Intellectual disability Low birth weight and prematurity Viruses In the mid 1960s, a worldwide epidemic of rubella (three-day, or German, measles) led to the birth of more than 20,000 American babies with serious defects and to 13,000 fetal and newborn deaths The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease that destroys the immune system, has infected increasing numbers of women over the past three decades Cytomegalovirus (the most frequent prenatal infection, transmitted through respiratory or sexual contact) and herpes simplex 2 (which is sexually transmitted) are especially dangerous Virus invades the mother's genital tract, infecting babies either during pregnancy or at birth No symptoms, very mild symptoms, or symptoms with which people are unfamiliar, thereby increasing the likelihood of contagion Bacterial and parasitic diseases Most common is toxoplasmosis, an infection caused by a parasite found in many animals Exercise Frequent, vigorous exercise, expecially late in pregnancy, results in lower birth weight than in healthy, nonexercising controls Nutrition Extra 100 calories a day in the first trimester Prevention and treatment Taking a folic acid supplement around the time of conception reduces by more than 70% abnormalities of the neural tube, such as anencephaly and spina bifida Since many U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, government regulations mandate that bread, flour, rice, pasta, and other grain products be fortified with folic acid Fortifying table salt with iodine virtually eradicated infantile hypothyroidism- a conditon of stunted growth and cognitive impairment caused by prenatal iodine deficiency, that is a common cause of intellectual disability in many parts of the world Emotional stress When we experience fear and anxiety, stimulant hormones released into our bloodstream – such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol, known as the "flight or fight" hormones- cause us to be "poised for action" RH factor incompatibility Inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, serious problems sometimes result The most common cause of these difficulties is Rh factor incompatibility When the mother is Rh-negative (lacks the Rh blood protein) and the father is Rh-positive (has the protein), the baby may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type (Because Rh-positive blood is dominant and Rh-negative blood is recessive, the chances are good that the baby will be Rh-positive) If even a little of a fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, she begins to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues The importance of prenatal health care Complication, experienced by 5 to 10 percent of pregnant women, is preeclampsia (sometimes called toxemia), in which blood pressure increases sharply and the face, hands, and feet swell in the second half of pregnancy Besides financial hardship, some mothers have other reasons for not seeking early prenatal care These include situational barriers (difficulty finding a doctor, getting an appointment, and arranging transportation, and insensitive or unsatisfying experiences with clinical staff) and personal barriers (psychological stress, the demands of taking care of other young children, family crisis, lack of knowledge about signs of pregnancy and benefits of prenatal care, and ambivalence about the pregnancy Group prenatal care, after each medical checkup, trained leaders provide minority expectant mothers with a gorup discussion session, which is conducted in their native language an dencourages them to talk about important health issues Biology and environment: prenatal iron deficiency and memory impairments in infants of diabetic mothers Hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation of new memories As a result of iron depletion in critical brain areas, a diabetic pregnancy places the fetus at risk for lasting memory deficits and thus for long-term learning and academic problems Damage to the hippocampus, located deep inside the temporal lobes, is responsible Do's of Pregnancy Do make sure that you have been vaccinated against infectious diseases that are dangerous to the embryo and fetus, such as rubella, before you get pregnant o Most vaccinations are not safe during pregnancy Do see a doctor as soon as you suspect that you are pregnant, and continue to get regular medical checkups throughout pregnancy Do eat a well-balanced diet and take vitamin-mineral supplements, as prescribed by your doctor, both prior to and during pregnancy o Gain 25 to 30 pounds gradually Do obtain information about prenatal development from your doctor, local library, bookstore, and health organization websites o Ask your doctor about anything that concerns you Do keep physically fit through moderate exercise. If possible, join a special exercise class for expectant mothers Do avoid emotional stress o If you are a single expectant mother, find a relative or friend on whom you can rely for emotional support Do get plenty of rest. An overtired mother is at risk for pregnancy complications Do enroll in a prenatal and childbirth education class with your partner or other companion o When oyu know what to expect, the nine months before birth can be one of the most joyful times of life Don't of a healthy pregnancy Don't take any drugs without consulting our doctor Don’t smoke o If you have already smoked during part of your pregnancy, cut down or, better yet, quit. o If other members of your family smoke, ask them to quit or to smoke outside Don't drink alcohol from the tiem you decide to get pregnant Don't engage in activitiesthat might expose your embryo or fetus to environmental harzards, such as radiation or chemical pollutants o If you work in an occupation that involves these agents, ask for a safer assignment or a leave of absence Don't engage in activitiesthat might expose your embryo or fetus to harmful infectious diseases, such as toxoplasmosis Don't choose pregnancy as a time to go on a diet Don't gain too much weight during pregnancy. A very large weight gain is associated with complications Preparing for parenthood Couples' upbeat attitudes reflected acceptance of parenthood- a coming to terms with this imminent, radical change in their lives
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