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Psych 1000 Chapters 10 and 11

by: Marie Markoff

Psych 1000 Chapters 10 and 11 PSYC 1010

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1010 > Psych 1000 Chapters 10 and 11
Marie Markoff

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These notes cover all of the material in chapters 10 and 11. Week 2/29-3/4
Introductory Psychology
Melinda Cannon
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 10 ­ Intelligence     Overall question   ● does each of us have an inborn level of talent, a general mental capacity or set of  abilities, and can that level be measured and represented by a score on a test?  ● one ability or many?   ● the role of creativity and emotional intelligence?   Definitions of intelligence   ● Intelligence can be defined as “whatever intelligence tests measure”   ● generate scores allows us to compare individuals   ● you college entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test   Beyond the test   ● Better definition ointelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and  use knowledge to adapt to new situations  Intelligence: single or multiple   Charles Spearman   ● performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one  area also did well in another   ● these people have a high “g” = general intelligence   ● we have one general intelligence that is the heart of all our intelligent behavior   Thurstone’s seven clusters of abilities   1. verbal comprehension   2. inductive reasoning   3. word fluency   4. spatial ability   5. memory   6. perceptual speed  7. numerical ability   Multiple intelligences   “savant syndrome” ­ when people can’t take care of themselves alone but have incredible  photographic memory and artistic abilities etc  Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences   ● 8 relatively independent intelligences   1. Naturalist   2. linguistic  3. logical mathematical   4. musical   5. spatial etc   Robert Sternberg   ● proposed that there are 3 intelligences  1. analytical ­ school smart, finding one right answer  2. Practical ­ street smart, money managing, organization etc   3. Creative ­ high creativity, thinking of multiple answers/solutions   Intelligence and success   ● “success in life” is more than high intelligence   ● Wealth tends to be related to intelligence tests scores plus focused daily effort, social  support and connections, hard work and energetic persistence   Other types of intelligence   ● social intelligence ­ socially aware  ● emotional intelligence ­ self aware   Components of Emotional Intelligence   ● perceiving emotions ­ being able to pick up on other people’s emotions  ● understanding emotions ­  being sympathetic to other’s emotions   ● managing emotions ­ self control of your emotions  ● using emotions   Benefits of emotional intelligence  ● the ability to delay gratification while pursuing long term goals (not to be driven by  immediate impulses)   ● contributes to success in career, marriage, and parenting situations   Aptitude vs. Achievement   ● Achievement tests: measure what you have already learned   ● Aptitude: attempts to predict your ability to learn new skills   ● the SAT, ACT, and GRE are supposed to predict your ability to do well in future  academic work   The origins of intelligence testing:   ● problem: late 1800’s Paris schools needed to objectively identify children in need of  special classes   ● Children were not required by law at the time, and this was changed and there was a  huge influx of kids at different academic levels.   ● Alfred Binet Devised tests to measure each child’s mental age   ● Lewis Terman​: modified Binet’s test for American children. He came up with the idea of  measuring intelligence   ● Called the test the Stanford­Binet intelligence test   ● William Stern: in 1914, he came up with the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)   What do scores mean?   ● Lewis Terman began with a different assumption than Binet. He thought that intelligence  was inherited   ● Later, Terman saw low scores can be affected by people’s level of education and their  familiarity with the language and culture used in the test   ● Terman told people with low scores to not reproduce   David Wechsler’s test: Intelligence PLUS   ● The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and one for children   ● verbal comprehension   ● processing speed  ● perceptual organization   ● working memory   Principles of Test Construction   ● In order for tests to generate results that are considered useful must be:   ● standardized   ­ we need to compare it to other individual’s scores   ­ Standardization: defining the meaning of scores based on a comparison with a pretested  group   ­ Reliability   ­ a test is reliable when it gives consistent results  ­ Split half reliability   ­ test­retest reliability   ­ A test or measure has ​validity if it accurately measures what it is supposed to measure   ­ content validity ­ questions on the test contain the content it is supposed to. ie a stats  test does not contain biology questions  ­ predictive validity: does you score predict how you will perform in college etc?   Predictive Validity   ● at the higher range of weight and success, weight is less of a valid predictor of success  of football linemen   ● why do the predictive power of aptitude scores diminish as students move up the  educational ladder?   Genetic and environmental Influences on intelligence (nature and nurture)   ● are people successful because of inborn traits?   ● or are they successful because of their unequal access to better nurture?   ● Identical twins raised together had more similar IQ’s if they were raised apart   Adoption studies   ● with age, the IQ scores of adopted kids are most similar to those of their birth parents   Environmental influences on intelligence   ● environment has more influence on intelligence under extreme conditions such as  abuse, neglect, or extreme poverty   Schooling and Intelligence:   ● schooling and intelligence interact, and both boost children’s chances for success   what predicts college students’ academic achievement?   ● study motivation and study skills   ●  Fixed mindset:​  idea that intelligence is set in stone   ● Growth mindset:​  intelligence is changeable   ● Ability + Opportunity + Motivation = success   ● praise effort, rather than ability   ● ie say, “Good job, you must have worked really hard for that grade.” instead of “You’re  so smart” give them the message that it is in your hands   Group Differences in test scores   gender differences:   ● male/female difference related to overall intelligence test score   ● boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low end of the intelligence test score  spectrum   ● girls are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally  fluent   ● boys tend to perform better on spatial ability tests   ● overall math performance between the genders is the same   Within­group vs. Between­group   ● group differences, including intelligence test score differences between so called “racial  groups” can be caused by environmental factors   ● racial groups are not distinct genetically     Chapter 11 ­ Motivation and Work: Read Appendix A     Some strong human drives include:   ● hunger   ● sex  ● belonging  ● achievement   Motivation   ● refers to a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior towards a goal   ● Aron Ralston cut off his own arm after getting trapped under a rock. what motivated him?   Perspectives on motivation:   Instinct theor (weaker theory)  ● an instinct is a fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be  rooted in genes   ● human babies show certain reflexes, but in general, our behavior is less prescribed by  genetics   ● we may have genetic predispositions for some behaviors   Drive reduction theory   ● A drive is an aroused or tense state related to a physical need (hunger, thirst)   ● humans are motivated to reduce these drives   ● this restores homeostasis   ● Need (food, water) ­> Drive (hunger thirst) ­> Drive reduction behavior (eating, drinking)   ● Drives “push” from inside us ​incentive​ re external stimuli that can “pull” us in our  actions.   Seeking Optimum Arousal   ● some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need   ● human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal   ● One spectrum: no arousal is complete boredom. The other end of the spectrum is  stressed   Hierarchy of Needs/motives   ● Abraham Maslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied  before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this higher on this  hierarchy   ● ie you need to make sure you have food, water, etc before esteem needs/belongingness  is met.     Hunger   ● research studies using semistarvation show that when we are hungry, thoughts about  food dominate our consciousness   Physiology of hunger   ● stomach contracts when hungry   The Hypothalamus and hunger:    ● receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to  the hypothalamus in the brain   ● the hypothalamus sends appetite stimulating hormones or appetite suppressing  hormones   Regulating weight   ● most mammals have a stable weight to which they keep returning ­ thei​et point  ● when a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use   ● Basal metabolic rate:​ rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions  when at rest   ● if you lose weight dramatically, your body sends you more appetite stimulating hormones  to try and get you back to your set point   How much do we eat?   ● eating depends in part on situational influences   ● Unit bias:we may eat only one serving of food, but will eat more if the serving size is  larger   ● Buffet Effect​we eat more if more options are available              


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