GOVT 2305 Week 3 Notes
GOVT 2305 Week 3 Notes Govt 2305
Austin Community College
Popular in United States Government
Popular in Government
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer D on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Govt 2305 at Austin Community College taught by Lynn Lehle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see United States Government in Government at Austin Community College.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
U.S. Govt 2305 Chapter 3 Review Key Terms Lynn Lehle Week 3 1. Federalism: A system of shared sovereignty between two levels of governmentone national and one subnationaloccupying the same geographic region. Right to rule shared between National Government and State Government 2. A Unitary System has a centralized governmental system in which local or sub divisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government. Central or National Government has power over states 3. A Confederal System is a league of independent sovereign states, joined together by a central government that has only limited powers over them. States have the power Independent Sovereign States 4. Division of Powers is a basic principle of federalism established by the U.S. Constitution. In a federal system, powers are divided between units of government (such as the federal and state governments). Federal systems divide powers between National and State Governments 5. Expressed Powers Are Constitutional or statutory powers that are expressly provided for by the Constitution or by congressional laws. Powers granted by Constitution 6. Implied Powers of the federal government that are implied by the expressed powers in the Constitution. “To make all Laws necessary and proper to carry out the expressed powers” – James Madison 7. Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, gives Congress the power to make all laws “necessary and proper” for the federal government to carry out its responsibilities: also called the elastic clause and established in 1819 in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland. Elastic Clause McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): Implied power to create National Bank Maryland taxed the Federal Bank McCulloch refused to pay tax Maryland courts sided with Maryland th 4 Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States John Marshall ruled Federal Banks don’t have to pay tax 8. Inherent Powers of the national government that are not always expressly granted by the Constitution but are necessary to ensure the nation’s integrity and survival as a political unit. They include the power to make treaties, to wage war and to make peace. Necessary to insure survival of National Government 9. Police Powers enable a government to create laws for the protection of the health, morals, safety, and welfare of the people. In the U.S. they are reserved for the states in the Constitution. Health/safety/morals Reserved for the States 10. Concurrent Powers are held by both the federal and the state governments. Middle of Venn Diagram (Below) Combination of National and State – both can carry out 11. Supremacy Clause makes the Constitution and all federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws. Federal laws superior to any conflicting state law Roe v Wade (1973): Abortion legalized and the National level Supremacy tips the balance in favor of National Government See Scale Image (Below) 12. Secession of the Southern states withdrawing from the federal Union (membership in an alliance) because of the future of slavery provoked the Civil War (18611865). Withdrew from the Union Civil War (18611865) 13. Dual Federalism is a system of government in which both the federal and the state governments maintain separate but sovereign powers. 14. Cooperative Federalism is the theory that the states and the federal government should cooperate in solving problems. 15. The New Deal was a program started by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 to bring the U.S. out of the Great Depression. It included many government spending and publicassistance programs, in addition to thousands of regulations governing economic activity. 16. PicketFence Federalism is a model of federalism in which specific policies and programs are administered by all levels of governmentnational, state, and local. 17. Preemption is a doctrine rooted in the supremacy clause of the Constitution that provides that national laws or regulations governing a certain area take precedence over conflicting state laws or regulations governing that same area. 18. New Federalism is a plan to limit the federal government’s role in regulating state governments and to give the states increased power to decide how they should spend government revenues. 19. Devolution is the surrender or transfer of powers to the local authorities by the central/national government. 20. Federal Mandate is a requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules. If the federal government does not provide funds to the states to cover the costs of compliance, the mandate is referred to as an unfunded mandate. 21. Categorical Grant is a federal grant targeted for a specific purpose as defined by federal law. 22. Block Grant is a federal grant given to a state for a broad area, such a s criminal justice or mentalhealth programs. 23. Fiscal Federalism is the power of the national government to influence state policies through grants. 24. Competitive Federalism is a model in which states and local governments compete for businesses and citizens, who in effect “vote with their feet” by moving to jurisdictions that offer competitive advantage. The Flow of Power in Three Systems of Government: Unitary: has all powers; tells states what to do Confederal: states tell central government what to do Federal: flow of power goes both ways 2/3 to propose an amendment 3/4 to ratify an amendment Constitutional Division of Powers: Powers Granted by the Constitution NATIONAL STCONCURRENT To coin money To regulato nery ate collctrcees To conduct foreign relations To cond To borrow money To regulate interstate commere To proviTe mrpke lc ealtr e laws To declare war safety To establish courts To raise and support the military esta To provide for the general To establish post offices To ratify welfarents to the To admit new states federal Constitutionbanks and To exercise powers implied by To establcorporationsmilitia the necessary and proper clause Constitutional Division of Powers: Powers Denied by the NATIONAL CoCONCURRENT STATE To tax articles exported from any To grant titles of nobility To tax imports or exports state To permit slavery To coin money To violate the Bill of Rights To deny citizens the right to vote To enter into treaties To change state boundaries To impair obligations of without consent of the states in contracts question To abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens or deny due process and equal protection of the laws Supremacy Scale State Governm ent National Governm ent UNITARY CONFEDERAL FEDERAL Central Government Central Government Central Government State State State State State State State State State Central Governmentof Power inStates tell Central Flow of power goes tells States what to do Government what to do both ways
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