PSY Social/Emotional Development Week 3
PSY Social/Emotional Development Week 3 PSY 151
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Ashley L. Heffner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
PSY Ch. 4 Human Development Notes: Lecture #3 - Part 3 p. 167-179 Social and Emotional Development Mirror Test o Video Most kids pass by 2 years of age (in Western Culture) Broesh et al. study (2010) o Non-westerner may react differently Theory of Mind o Video Attachment: The Bond Between Infant and Caregiver Attachment- special intimate bond that develops between infant and caregiver, generally the mother, beginning when the infant is about 6 months old Attachment theory- describes the development of this relationship o John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth o The first attachment relationship is formed to the primary caregiver, generally mother o After initial attachment is firm a secondary attachment may be formed (father) Imprinting- learning that occurs rapidly during a critical period and which the animal is biologically prepared to acquire The Internal Working Model Internal working model- attachment theorists’ notion that the quality of a child’s understanding of his or her place in the world, and his or her expectations about the behavior of others, reflects the quality of attachment relations in infancy o Early attachment relationship must be made up of consistent and predictable kind and responsive treatment for infant to learn that world is a benign place and other people are to be trusted Attachment Styles and the Strange Situation Some form of attachment will occur for all infants as long as an individual caregiver is consistently present in the infant’s life during the critical period The strange situation- mother and stranger leave child alone, once with stranger, once by themselves 1. Secure attachment- when mother leaves the infant may become quite upset, but will react with joy when mother returns Show friendliness to stranger when mother is present but wariness if she is absent 2. Avoidant attachment- less interest in the strange situation even when mother is present Infant shows little distress when mother leaves Ignores mother in her return Arrived at a place of “not-caring” because they know their emotional needs will not be met 3. Insecure-Ambivalent attachment- on “high alert” and do not easily venture from the safety of their mothers’ play May become very upset when mother leaves When she returns infant rushes to her but shows anger towards her for leaving Wary of strangers whether or not the mother is present Considering Attachment Theory A child who seems securely attached at one age may appear insecure-ambivalent or avoidant a year or two later Infants do not base their working model of the world on “mother model” Infants keep these relationships in entirely separate “mental accounts” What influences attachment? Parent-Child Fit o Temperament o Developing Synchrony o Parenting styles Social Deprivation o Romanian Orphanages Separation o Daycare What happened to Jessica? Long Term Outcomes Findings are correlational Cultural context matters Long Term outcomes of Attachment o Insecure attachments o Disorganized attachment o Securely attached infants Cognitive Development Jean Piaget and Constructivism Piaget suggests that each infant and child actively “constructs” an understanding of the world based on his or her experience, always pushing for an understanding that is more advanced than the one previously held Constructivism- the stage theory of child development devised by Piaget o Holds that each child actively constructs an understanding of their own based on experience and his or her stage of psychological and biological maturation Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: schemas and stages o Schemas- a mental structure or cognitive model that represents some aspect of the world and how it works o Developmental stages- the idea that human beings pass through period of development with distinct boundaries, and that reflect qualitatively different types of cognitive activity Assimilation- Piaget’s term to describe the process whereby a person processes a new experience by fitting it into a preexisting schema Accommodation- Piaget’s term for the process whereby a person alters his or her schema to incorporate new information or experiences Piaget’s Developmental Stages: Sensorimotor stage (ages 0-2) o Characterized by unthinking responses to internal and external stimuli and events Sensory and motor abilities Reflexes – Object permanence- understanding that objects continue to exist even if they are no longer in view Often repeat actions (throw down cup) Preoperational period (ages 2-7) o Characterized by development of the symbolic capacity of the child’s mind o Schemata become more sophisticated Operations – Language development o Still some errors persist Principle of conservation Centration- Reversibility- Egocentrism- seeing world from own perspective only Phone example Concrete operational period (ages 7-11) o Characterized by mastery of tasks involving the application of logic o Verbalize, visualize, and mentally manipulate objects Understanding reversibility, conservation o Elementary logical tasks o Difficulty with true abstract thinking Formal operational period (age 11+) o Characterized by the ability to apply systematic logic to abstract concepts and to think hypothetically and skeptically o Approximately adolescence o Imaginary concepts, hypothesize, think in the abstract o Can use systematic ways of solving problems o Thinking is now adult like
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