Introduction Chapter Outline for Essentials of Life-Span Development Fourth Edition
Introduction Chapter Outline for Essentials of Life-Span Development Fourth Edition BS260
Butler County Community College
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PHY 2460 - 02
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Corona on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BS260 at Butler County Community College taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Butler County Community College.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
1: Introduction Friday, August 19, 2016 7:44 AM The Life-Span Perspective o Development: the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span o The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development You may be motivated to consider how your experiences will affect your development through the remainder of your adult years o Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective Traditional approach emphasizes change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age The modern approach emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood Life-span perspective Views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. Development is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together o Development Is Lifelong We never stop developing. There is no age period that dominates development either. o Development Is Multidimensional Development consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions Cognitive dimensions include attention, memory, abstract thinking, speed of processing information, and social intelligence Changes in one dimension also affect development in the other dimension o Development Is Multidirectional Some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink For example, at an early age we can easily learn a second or third language where as we become older, it becomes more difficult to do so o Development Is Plastic Plasticity is the capacity for change Cognitive skills of older adults can be improved through training and developing better strategies As we be come old, we possess less capacity for change o Developmental Science Is Multidisciplinary How do our heredity and health limit our intelligence? Do intelligence and social relationships change with age in the same way around the world? How do families and schools influence intellectual development? o Development Is Contextual All development occurs within a context This includes families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, neighborhoods, universities, countries, and so on Each of these settings are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors Individuals are changing beings in a changing world Contexts exert three types of influences Normative age-graded influences Similar for individuals in a particular age group Biological processes such as puberty and menopause Sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement Normative history-graded influences Common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances Includes economic, political, and social upheavals such as the Great Depression Long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population Nonnormative life events Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual's life o Development Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss Often involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development: growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss o Development Is a Co-Construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual Development comes from biological, cultural, and individual factors influencing each other Brain shapes culture but it is also shaped by culture and the experiences that individuals have or pursue Contemporary Concerns in Life-Span Development o Health and Well-Being The power of lifestyles and psychological states in health and well-being o Parenting and Education We will spend more time analyzing these things in later chapters It is important to understand that we have many questions related to pressures on the contemporary family and the problems of the US schools o Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity Culture This encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation No matter how large or small the group, the culture influences the behavior of its members Cross-cultural studies Compares aspects of two or more cultures The comparison is done to provide information about the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures or if it is culture-specific Ethnicity This is rooted in cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language Socioeconomic status (SES) Refers to a persons position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics Gender This is the aspect of the characteristics of people as females and males o Social Policy This is a governments course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens Values, economics, and politics all shape a nation's social policy The Nature of Development o Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Biological Processes produce changes in an individual's physical nature Genes inherited from parents, development of the brain, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples Cognitive Processes refer to changes in an individual's thinking, intelligence, and language Socioemotional Processes involve changes in the individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Developmental cognitive neuroscience Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain Developmental social neuroscience Examines connections between socioemotional processes, development, and the brain In many cases, these three things are bidirectional meaning one can affect the other as the other can affect the one o Periods of Development Prenatal period Conception to birth This involves tremendous growth from a single cell to a complete organism Infancy From birth to 18 or 24 months when humans are extremely dependent on adults Language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning are just the beginning Early childhood The end of infancy to age 5 or 6 Known as the preschool years They become more self sufficient and develop school readiness skills Middle and late childhood 6 to 11 years of age and also known as the elementary school years Reading writing and arithmetic are being developed Adolescence Starts anywhere form 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to 22 years of age Begins with rapid physical body changes as well as the pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent Thought is more logical, abstract, and idealistic Early adulthood Begins in the late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties Establishing personal and economic independence becoming proficient in a career and selecting a mate and learning to live with that person in an intimate way Middle adulthood Developmental period from about 40 to 60 Expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility of assisting the next generation in becoming competent mature individuals Late adulthood Begins in the sixties or seventies and lasts until death This is a time of reviewing life This typically lasts longer than any other period of development o Conceptions of Age Four Types of Age Biological age is a person's age in terms of biological health The younger the person's biological age the longer the person is expected to live This involves knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs Psychological Age is an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age Older adults who continue to learn are engaging in more adaptive behaviors that their chronological age-mates who do not Social Age refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt Those with better social lives are going to live longer than individuals without them due to a happy state of mind vs a lonely state of mind Chronological Age is the actual counting of time Age and Happiness More adults have shown to have increasingly happy lives as they age because of the new developments that are going on during the stages of life o Developmental Issues Nature and Nurture Nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance and nurture is its environmental experience Stability and Change Those that emphasize stability in development argue that stability is the result of heredity and possibly early experiences in which the infant or young child encountered considerable stress when interacting with people Those who emphasize change take the more optimistic view that later experiences can produce change Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity involves gradual cumulative change Discontinuity involves distinct stages Evaluating the Developmental Issues These things characterize development throughout the human life span rather than development only being one of six things Theories of Development o Psychoanalytic Theories Describe development primarily in terms of unconscious processes that are heavily colored by emotion Freud's Theory He developed a technique called psychoanalysis He believed in five stages of pleasure (psychosexual stages) Oral Stage - birth to 1.5 yrs Infants pleasure centers on the mouth Anal Stage - 1.5 to 3 yrs Childs pleasure focuses on the anus Phallic Stage - 3 to 6 yrs Childs pleasure focuses on the genitals Latency Stage - 6 yrs to puberty Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills Genital Stage - puberty onward A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family Erickson's Psychosocial Theory Believed we developed in psychosocial stages There are 8 stages Trust versus mistrust First five years of life Sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live Autonomy versus shame and doubt Late infancy and toddlerhood They begin to assert their sense of independence or autonomy and if restrained too much or punished too harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame and doubt Initiative versus guilt Preschool years They experience a widening social world that comes with new challenges requiring active, purposeful, responsible behavior. If the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious they may have feelings of guilt Industry versus interiority Elementary years They now must direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills May develop a sense of inferiority- feeling incompetent and unproductive Identity versus identity confusion Adolescent years They are finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life If they do this in a positive manner, all will be swell but if not, identity confusion begins Intimacy versus isolation Early adulthood They face the task of forming intimate relationships If successful, intimacy is achieved, if not, isolation begins Generativity versus stagnation Middle adulthood They develop a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives If they have done nothing to help the next generation, the feeling is stagnation Integrity versus despair Late adulthood They reflect on the past which may reveal a life well spend creating the sense of integrity but if not it will yield doubt or gloom Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories These two theories have been criticized for a lack of scientific support, too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings, and an image of people that is too negative. o Cognitive Theories Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory States that children go through four stages as they construct their understanding of the world Sensorimotor Stage - birth to 2 yrs Infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions Begins at reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought near the end Preoperational Stage - 2 to 7 yrs Child begins to represent the world with words and images which reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action Concrete Operational Stage - 7 to 11 yrs The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets Formal Operational Stage - 11 yrs through adulthood The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory The child's development is inseparable from the social and cultural activities Cognitive development involves learning to use the inventions of society Information-Processing Theory Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it Individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills Siegler states that thinking is information processing so to develop you must learn Evaluating Cognitive Theories Criticisms include skepticism about the pureness of Piaget's stages and a belief that too little attention is paid to the individual variations o Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories These hold that development can be described in terms of behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings Skinner's Operant Conditioning He believed that the probability of a behaviors recurrence were dependent upon the consequences Rewards and punishments shaped development Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory Believes that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key factors in development His early research program focused heavily on observational learning that occurs through observing what others do Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories They have been criticized for placing too little emphasis on cognition and giving inadequate attention to developmental change o Ethological Theory Ethology is the study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat Lorenz's Research with Greylag Geese They believed in imprinting which is the rapid innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen If the example that is set is positive, the one developing is set to do well in life. If the example set is negative, the one developing is set to fail in life Evaluating Ethological Theory Criticisms include a belief that it places too much emphasis on biological foundations and that the concept of a critical and sensitive period might be too rigid o Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory Holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems Microsystem Setting in which the individual lives Those in the setting help shape the individual Mesosystem Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts Exosystem Consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individuals immediate context Macrosystem Involves the culture in which individuals live Chronosystem Consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course as well as sociohistorical circumstances Evaluating Ecological Theory Criticized for giving inadequate attention to biological factors as well as placing too little emphasis on cognitive factors o An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation It doesn’t follow any one theoretical approach but rather presents what are considered the best features of each of the theories Research in Life-Span Development o Methods for Collecting Data Observation It must be systematic Need to know what we are looking for When and where will we observe How will they be made How will they be recorded A laboratory is a controlled setting where many of the complex factors of the real world are absent Naturalistic observation means observing the real world with no attempt to change anything Survey and Interview Ask someone directly or send out a survey Standardized Test Uniform procedures for administration and scoring Case Study Looking deep into one specific individual Physiological Measures Studying different development areas at different points in the life span o Research Designs Descriptive Research This aims to observe and record behavior Correlation Research The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics Experimental Research A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant Independent and Dependent Variables Independent is manipulated Dependent can change in response to the independent variable Experimental and Control Groups This is a group whose experience is manipulated (experimented) This is a group who is treated same way as experimental group without the experimental factor (controlled) Random assignment allows for everyone to be left out to avoid swaying the information o Time Span of Research Cross-Sectional Approach A strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages Doesn’t have to wait for the individual to grow up or become older Longitudinal Approach Research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a long period of time Cohort Effects A group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences as a result o Conducting Ethical Research Informed Consent All participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop Confidentiality Researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential and when possible completely anonymous Debriefing After the study has been completed participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used Deception In some circumstances telling the participants beforehand what the research study is about substantially alters the participants behavior and invalidates the researchers data
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