PY 101, Week 5
PY 101, Week 5 PY 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Learning: Part 1 Learning Objectives Describe classical and operant conditioning and the important studies associated with each Be able to apply classical and operant conditioning to real-world situations Learning Results from Experience Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience o Associations through conditioning, a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connected History of Learning Theory Learning theory arose in early twentieth century Behaviorism was the dominant paradigm into the 1960s, and it has had a lasting impact on many areas of psychology Classical Conditioning Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning: a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response o Pavlov’s Dog: put food in front of a dog and realized it salivated every time; then rang a bell and gave the dog food each time; finally rang a bell and the dog then associated it with getting food and started to salivate Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning (food) Unconditioned response: response that does not have to be learned (salivating) Conditioned stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place (bell) Conditioned response: response that has been learned (salivating) Little Albert: When he reached for a little white rat he heard a loud banging noise and associated rat with being scared after some time when shown a white rat he would get scared because he associated the rat with a loud noise that scared him o Fear can be learned but it can also be unlearned Biological preparedness: a natural fear instinct, like heights or snakes Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning (instrumental Conditioning): a learning process in which the consequence of an action determines the likelihood that it will be performed in the future o Law of Effect: if consequence of behavior makes you feel good you’ll do it again, if you feel bad you might not do it again Researchers put a cat in a box with a window so they can see the food on the outside. Box has a lever inside that when pushed down the door will open and the cat can get food from it. Once the cat figures that out every time he is put in the box the time to get out decreases because he realized pushing on the lever opens the door which gets him yummy food Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement increases likelihood of behavior o Positive reinforcement: administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior being repeated (stickers on a test) o Negative reinforcement: removal of a stimulus to increase probability of behavior being repeated (taking away chores for good grades) Punishment decreases likelihood of behavior o Positive punishment: administration of a stimulus to decrease probability of behavior recurring (spanking) o Negative punishment: removal of a stimulus to decrease probability of a behavior recurring (taking away phone)
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