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HIST 106 Week 2-3 Notes

by: Zachary Willy Sikui

HIST 106 Week 2-3 Notes HIST 106

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > History > HIST 106 > HIST 106 Week 2 3 Notes
Zachary Willy Sikui
Texas A&M
GPA 3.8
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Week 2-3 notes
History of the US
William Collopy
Class Notes
history, HIST106




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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zachary Willy Sikui on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 106 at Texas A&M University taught by William Collopy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History of the US in History at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
HIST 106 - Lecture #3 (September 2, 2016) The Agony of Reconstruction “The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.” W.E.B Dubois What Was Reconstruction? • Adjustment to the end of slavery • Re-admittance of states to the Union Reconstruction: 1863 - 1877 Impediments • Political compromises • Immensity of the task • Southern fears • Focus on expansion o Overseas o Westward • Industrialization (North and South) • Resistance vs. reconciliation National Government • Executive • Legislative Republican Power • “Waving the bloody shirt” • Won the war • Saved the Union • Freed the slaves Passed by Republicans During War • Pacific Railroad Act (1862) • Homestead Act (1862) • Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862) Presidential Reconstruction • Andrew Johnson (Dem.) • Property ownership restored • Generally lenient • Radicals moved to impeach “Radical” Reconstruction • Refused to seat southerners • Civil rights bill of 1866 • Extended Freedmen’s Bureau • 5 military districts A Free People Freedom for Freed Slaves • Leaving the plantation • Town and city jobs • Married • New names African Americans Priorities** • Land • Education Freedmen’s Bureau • Labor contracts • Schools • Judicial services Pediments to Freedmen’s Bureau • Underfunded • Understaffed • Relied a lot on US Army Southern Courts • No black testimony • Whites acquitted of violence • Blacks sentenced to compulsory labor Constitutional Amendments th • 13 thabolished slavery • 14 – citizenship and due process • 15 – states forbidden to interfere with voting rights based on race Suffrage th • The 15 Amendment helped secure the black (male) vote for Republicans • No gains for women Agriculture Land Ownership Agriculture • Gang labor • Sharecropping • Tenancy • Indebtedness to merchants HIST 106 - Lecture #4 (September 5, 2016) Black Self-Help • Churches • Ministers • Schools • Land ownership Education • American Missionary Association • Local schools • Howard, Fisk, Morehouse, etc. “Redemption” • Restoration of white control • Violence (militias, KKK) • Shift of control from Republicans to Democrats Black Codes ** (Manifestation… continues well into 20 century) • Ostensibly “Protection of rights” • State and local challenges to federal authority • Restricted owning firearms • Curfew • Transportation Reconstruction’s Demise • Whites controlled land and labor • Compromise of 1877 o Settled the 1876 presidential election, naming Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as President of the U.S. o Union troops removed o Federal support for railroads o Local control of race relations Historians’ Consensus • No economic base • Race over class “The old master class retained the power to starve [the freedmen] to death, and wherever this power is held there is room for slavery.” – Frederick Douglass Legacy “Reconstruction established a framework of legal rights that… planted the seeds of future struggle and left intact a vehicle for future federal intervention in southern…” Eric Foner The West “We do not want you here. You are scaring away the buffalo.” Sioux leader Red Cloud to surveyors in Wyoming American Character Frederick Jackson Turner • Frontier helped shaped America’s character and institutions • Taming the wilderness made Europeans into Americans • “Rugged individualism” promoted democracy • Exceptionalism of America’s society and character Turner’s Frontier • Not a fixed phenomenon • Move westward o Atlantic Coast o Appalachians o Mississippi River o Across the plains o Rockies o Pacific coast Opening the West • Transcontinental railroads • Defeat of Native Americans • Liberal land distribution (the US government owns the land) • Eager pioneers and capitalists • Territorial government The Great Plains • Cattle grazing • Public lands • Homestead Act 1862 • Farmers arrive • Barbed wire fencing A Bad Deal for the Buffalo • Railroad construction • Railroad construction crews • Sport shooting • Wasteful practices A Bad Deal for Native Americans • Nomadic culture • Forced relocations • Forced reliance on whites • U.S. Army’s campaign • Popular image of Native Americans • Valuable resources • Broken promises, treaties • Black Hills gold 1874-1876 (land reserved for Native Americans) • Little Big Horn, MT (1876) The Dawes Act 1887 • U.S. authority extended to reservations • Tribal unity undermined • Land allotted in 160 acre parcels Significant Events (circa 1890) • Ghost dance • Wounded Knee Creek • Indian dependency Mining • Gold in California 1848 • CO, ID, MT, NV (Colorado, Indiana, Montana, Nevada) • Ag, Fe, Cu, Pb (Silver, iron, copper, lead) • Depletion of timber • Environmental awareness Changes in Farming • Agricultural mechanization • Railroad crop shipments • Scientific advances Farming Sector Influences • Corporate farms • Farmers a smaller % of labor force • Farming’s contribution to national wealth declined National Grange • Cooperatives • Accusations against o Grain elevator operators o Railroads HIST 106 - Lecture #5 (September 7, 2016) National Grange • Cooperatives • Accusations against o Grain elevator operators o Railroads Industrial Society Growth of Manufacturing • Technology • Entrepreneurs • Natural resources • Capital • Labor • Leading source of economic growth, 1860-1890 • Majority of workforce in manufacturing by 1890 • Unequal distribution of wealth and power Government Support • Federal • State • Local • Land • Money Changing Technology • Steam power • Electrical power The Efficient Network • Trans-continental railroads • Telegraph lines • National market • Mass production • Mass marketing Railroad Finances • U.S. capital • Foreign capital • Government Financial Panics • 1873 • 1893 Arnold C. Livesay (Author) • Andrew Carnegie • J.P. Morgan Steel “Robber Barons” • Andrew Carnegie Steel • J.P. Morgan Finance • Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads • John D. Rockefeller Oil Methods for Growth • Incorporation • * Vertical integration (doing from the beginning to the end) • Trusts • Holding companies Retailing • Advertising • A&P (The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company) • Sears & Roebuck • Catalogues The Workplace Workplace Conditions • 10-hour day; 6-day week • Unsafe, unsanitary conditions • “Contributory negligence” • No safety net • Working class unrest The Women at Work The Workforce • Principally men • Increasing numbers of women • Children Racial Variations – 1900 • 5% of white married women • 25% of African American married women o Southern agriculture o Laundresses o Domestics Railroad Finances • Cost-cutting • Wage reductions • Labor unrest Workplace Changes • Expansion among the unskilled and semi-skilled • Relentless pressure to produce • Ethnic clustering • Division of labor Frederick Winslow Taylor (1866 – 1915) (W for work) • Manage production • Professional managers • Employer control vs. laborer control • Tasks divided into sub-tasks • Lower morale • Worker hostility HIST 106 - Lecture #6 (September 9, 2016) Quiz 3 Not Dower article Not Foner essay Not Carnegie Division of Labor • Single o Component o Function • Part of larger finished product Labor Organizes • Knights of Labor • American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers) • American Railway Union • Women • Ethnic group • Racial group Workers’ Share • Unequal wealth distribution • Skilled vs. unskilled wages • Male vs. female wages • Unemployment • No safety net Workplace Protest • Production pace • Strikes Major Labor Actions • Great Railroad Strike (1877) • Haymarket Affair (1886) • Homestead Strike (1892) • Pullman Strike (1894) VIOLENCE! Government Attitude • Police • Courts Eugene V. Debs (1855 – 1926) • Railroad background • Spellbinding public speaker • Understood the ballot’s power • A conflicted socialist Towards an Urban Society Industry Size Increase, 1860 – 1900 (Average number of workers per establishment) Urban Expansion • Farm machines replaced hands • From: small towns and rural areas • Jobs • Shops, theaters, restaurants City Geography • Steel-framed buildings • Elevators • Mass transit o Streetcar lines o Elevated lines • Middle class out • Working class in Immigration to 1880 • British Isles o Irish o English o Scots • Germans • Scandinavians • Italian Catholics • Eastern European Jews • Slavic o Russians o Poles A Nation of Big Cities • By 1900 o 6 cities > ½ million people o 3 cities > 1 million people Ø New York Ø Chicago Ø Philadelphia Not Quite Paradise Ø Overcrowded tenements Ø Deplorable conditions o Putrid air o Impure water supply o Random waste disposal o Industrial pollution o Crime and gangs “Muckrakers” Jacob Riis “How the other Half Lives” Other Immigration • Chinese – Pacific Coast • Latin Americans o Southwest U.S. o Florida SPEC • Ethnic • Religious • Publications HIST 106 ­ Lecture #7 (September 12, 2016) They Came to Work Politics   Political machines  “Bosses”  “Tweed Ring” (William M. Tweed)  Not just NYC (Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston included) Political Parties  As the United States continued to industrialized into the 20  century, the Democratic Party was  considered to be more supportive of the working class. SPEC  Victorian morality   Temperance   Games at home  Baseball, fairs, circuses  Women   Smaller families  Single workers   Increased legal rights   National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890) Elementary Education   Structured curriculum, discipline, routine   Horace Mann**  Boys = more schooling  South lagged the North  Higher Education  Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862  Philanthropy  o Leland Stanford  o John D. Rockefeller (University of Chicago)  Booker T. Washington   Former slave  Educator   Tuskegee Institute   “Atlanta Compromise”  Accommodation   1895 – “Atlanta Compromise” o Vote o Civil rights  o Equality  W.E.B Du Bois   Ph.D. Harvard   Disagreed with Booker T. Washington   “Talented tenth”  Niagara movement   NAACP   The Crisis  Race  Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) o Separate but equal  o Jim Crow South   North o De facto versus de jure  Views of Society  Herbert Spencer o “Social Darwinism”  Henry George  o Wealth gap growing  Social Gospel  o Society as well as individuals Settlement Houses    Jane Addams – Hull House   Sharing the lives of the poor   Infant medical care   Recreation  Employment information   Cultural exposure   Citizenship education  Florence Kelly   Child labor   Law degree  Efforts at legislation  o State  o Federal  African – American Migration   Beginning around 1880  From: rural areas of the South   To: South’s cities   To: North’s cities  Race  Local initiatives o Churches  o Clubs  o Schools  o  NAACP (1909) o White progressives o Black leaders  HIST 106 - Lecture #8 (September 14, 2016) Tuskegee Institute Political Realignments (1890s) The Gilded Age (1877 – 1900) Voting • White males • South o Poll tax o Literacy • Women restricted A Hobbled Government • From Lincoln to Teddy Roosevelt • Gridlocked legislative branch • Weak, reluctant executive branch • Depressions of 1873, 1893 • State government initiatives State Government Initiatives • Commissions regulating railroads • Prompted federal legislature o Interstate Commerce Act (1887) o Interstate Commerce Commission Presidents • Chester Arthur (R) 1881 – 1884 • Grover Cleveland (D) 1884 – 1888 • Benjamin Harrison (R) 1888 – 1892 • Grover Cleveland (D) 1892 – 1896 Depression of 1893 • Began in Europe • Shrinking markets abroad • U.S. manufacturing crippled • Collapsing farm prices • Dumping of U.S. securities • Outflow of gold Symptoms of Depression • Coxey’s Army (1894) o Print money o Construction jobs • Pullman Strike (1894) o American Railway Union (Eugene V. Debs) o Obstructed the mail o U.S. Army troops Seeds of the Populist Party National Grange • Cooperatives • Accusations against o Grain elevator operators o Railroads Populism • Grange • National Alliance • Ocala Platform (1890) • Populist Party (1892) Mary Lease • Populist speaker • Farming areas • “Raise less corn and more hell!” National Alliance Ocala Platform of 1890 • Sub-treasuries • Increase money supply • Reclaim R.R. lands • Reduce or eliminate tariffs • Graduated income tax Populist Party (1892) People’s (Populist) Party 1892 • Popular election of senators • 8-hour day • Restricted immigration • Graduated income tax Populists • Farmers • Miners • Working people The People’s (Populist) Party • 1892 Elections • Governors in KS, ND • 10 Congressmen • 5 U.S. Senators • 1,500 state legislators Political Realignments, 1890s (II) Election of 1896 Many historians consider it one of the most important elections of the United States. Republicans • New England • Protestant • Nativist leaning • Prohibitionist • African-American Support


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