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Chapter 1 Discover Sociology Notes

by: Alyssa Andrea

Chapter 1 Discover Sociology Notes SOC 1838G - 004

Marketplace > Eastern Illinois University > Sociology > SOC 1838G - 004 > Chapter 1 Discover Sociology Notes
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Notes over Chapter 1 of Discover Sociology
Introductory Sociology
Shane D. Soboroff
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Andrea on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1838G - 004 at Eastern Illinois University taught by Shane D. Soboroff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Eastern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 1 Discover Sociology Notes A. Sociology is a way of learning about the world that combines logically  constructed theory and systematic observation.  B. Research Methods: surveys, interviews, observations, and archival research. C. Sociology is the scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and  societies.  D. Social Embeddedness: the idea that economic, political, and other forms of  human behavior are fundamentally shaped by social relations.    I. The Sociological Imagination A. Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills): the ability to grasp the  relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that help to shape them. B. Agency: the ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make  social changes on a small or large scale.  C. Structure: patterned social arrangements that have effects on agency (may  enable or constrain social action).  D. Class structure: composed of social groups who hold varying amounts of  resources such as political voice, and social status.  E. Critical Thinking     1. Definition: the ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and  evidence.      2. Six Rules by Wade and Tavris 1997                    ­Be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult.        ­Think logically and be clear        ­Back up your arguments with evidence        ­Think about the assumptions and biases, including your own, that underlie  all studies.         ­Avoid anecdotal evidence        ­Be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your results.  II. The Development of Sociological Thinking A. The Birth Of Sociology, Science, Progress, Industrialization, and Urbanization     1. Sociology’s Roots in Four Historical Developments        ­Scientific Revolution ­Rise of modern natural and physical sciences ­Auguste Comte coined term sociology        ­The Enlightenment ­Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rosseau promised humankind could attain  lofty heights by applying scientific understanding to human affairs.  ­Emile Durkheim argued that’s social understanding would create a more  egalitarian, peaceful society.         ­Industrialization ­Karl Marx predicted that industrialization would make life increasingly  intolerable for the masses.         ­Urbanization  ­Durkheim argued traditional communities were held together by shared  culture and norms (accepted social behaviors and beliefs) ­Modern industrial communities were threatened by anomie (a state of  normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give  order and meaning to their lives) B. 19  Century Founders     1. Auguste Comte        ­Social Statistics: the way society is held together        ­Social Dynamics: the laws that govern social change        ­Positivist: science that is based on facts alone        ­All sciences go through three stages 1. Theological: key ways of understanding the world are framed in terms  of superstition, imagination, and religion. 2. Metaphysical: abstract speculation but framed by the basic belief that  society is the product of natural rather than supernatural forces. 3. Scientific Reasoning: from the facts     2. Harriet Martineau        ­Founding mother of sociology        ­Translated Comte’s work        ­Believed that for society to evolve, it must ensure social justice for women  and other oppressed groups.      3. Emile Durkheim        ­Social Facts: qualities of groups that are external to individual members yet  constrain their thinking and behavior.         ­Social Solidarity: the bonds that unite the members of a social group.  ­Mechanical solidarity: speak the same language, share the same  customs, do similar work tasks. ­Organic solidarity: modern society functions as an interdependent  organic whole, like a human body. Not as strong as mechanical solidarity.          ­Collective conscience: the common beliefs and values that bind a society  together.       4. Karl Marx          ­Class conflict: competition between social classes over the distribution of  wealth, power, and other valued resources in society.          ­Proletariat: working people           ­Bourgeoisie: ownership class         ­Means of production: the sites and technology that produce the  goods/services we need and use       5. Max Weber          ­Verstehen: German word for interpretive understanding; Weber’s proposed methodology for explaining social relationships by having the sociologist imagine how  subjects might perceive a situation.           ­Formal rationality: a context in which people’s pursuit of goals is shaped  by rules, regulations, and larger social structure.           ­Bureaucracies: formal organizations characterized by written rules,  hierarchical authority, and paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency. C. Early 20  Century US Sociology     1. Robert Ezra Park­pioneered study of urban sociology and race relations.  Worked at Chicago School of Sociology at University of Chicago.                 2. W.E.B. Du Bois­prominent black sociologist at African American Atlanta  University. Developed idea of double consciousness an awareness of being both  American and black, never free of racial stigma, able to see themselves through the eyes  of others.  th              D. Mid 20  Century in US Sociology      1. Robert K. Merton ­Theory of deviance ­Distinction between manifest and latent functions ­Development of midway theories       2. C. Wright Mills ­Translated many of Max Weber’s works into English ­Advocated activist sociology E. Why so few founding mothers?     1. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women (scientific  progress could not be made until women were allowed to become men’s equals)    2. Aline Vallete: Socialism and Sexualism    3. Jane Addams: founder of the Hull House (settlement house for the poor, sick,  and aged that became a center for political activists and social reformers) III. Sociology: One Way of Looking at The World­Or Many? A. Sociological theories: logical, rigorous frameworks for the interpretation of  social life that make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about the social  world.  B. Three Dominant Theoretical Perspectives     1. Structural Functionalism     2. Social Conflict Theory     3. Symbolic Interactionism C. Macro­level Paradigms     1. Theories of the social world that are concerned with large scale patterns and  institutions.  D. Micro­level Paradigm                 1. A theory of the social world that is concerned with small group social  relations and interactions.  E. Functionalist Paradigm     1. Structural Functionalism ­A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of  the roles performed by different social structures, phenomena, and institutions; also  known as functionalism.  ­Manifest functions: functions of an object, an institution, or a  phenomenon that are obvious ad intended ­Latent functions: functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are not recognized or expected.  F. Social Conflict Paradigm     1. Theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms od the  conflict built into social relationships.  G. Symbolic Interactionism (Herbert Blumer and Herbert Mead)     1. A micro sociological perspective that posits that both the individual self and  society as a whole are the products of social interactions based on language and other  symbols.      2. Symbols: representations of things that are not immediately present to our  senses.  IV. Principal Themes in This Text A. Power and Inequality     1. Power: the ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the  resistance of others.     2. Inequality: differences in wealth, power, and other valued resources.  B. Globalization and Diversity     1. Globalization: the process by which people all over the planet become  increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.     2. Social diversity: the social and cultural mixture of different groups in  society and the societal recognition of difference as significant.     3. Ethnocentrism: a worldview where one judges other cultures by the  standards of ones own culture and regards ones own way of life as normal and better than others.  B. Technology and Society     1. Technology: the practical application of knowledge to transform natural  resources for human use.


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