Geography Chapter 1 Notes
Geography Chapter 1 Notes Geog 1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaelin Kneen on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1000 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Cliff Todd in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of World Geography (online) in Geography at University of Nebraska at Omaha.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 1 Lecture Outline Geography: An Exploration of Connections Pgs. 157 Part 1 Introduction o Where is it? Why is it there? Why does it Matter? o What is Geography? The study of our planet’s surface and the processes that shape it o The Region as a Concept A region is a unit of earth’s surface with distinct physical and human features Boundaries are rarely crisp Geographers use region as a reasonable way to divide the world into manageable parts Demarcations are used for various purposes. Definitions may vary. No two regions are defined by the same set of indicators Regions can vary greatly in size Boundaries are indistinct and hard to agree upon Physical Geography Perspectives o Landforms: The Sculpting of the Earth Geomorphology: study of the configuration of the Earth’s solid surface Alfred Wegner used spatial analysis to explain Pangaea. Plate Tectonics Earths surface is composed of large plates that float on top of an underlying layer of molten rock Plate movements influence the shapes of major landforms Volcanoes are from subduction Landscape Processes Floodplain small valleys between hills that are filled in by silt Delta where rivers meet the sea (floodplains often fan out into triangle) o Climate Weather the immediate and shortterm conditions of the atmosphere Ex. Temperature, humidity, wind Climate the long term conditions (at least 30 years) of aggregate weather over a region, summarized by average of variability Ex. Temperature or precipitation Climate Regions Koppen Classification System climate regions based on temp and precipitation. Human Geography Perspectives o Often have to look in the past to understand the present o Cultural Geography Culture representation of ideas, materials, methods, and social arrangements that people have invented i.e. language, music, gender roles, beliefs, morals Religion and Belief Systems Formal and informal institutions that embody value system Informal religions are called BELIEF SYSTEMS, no formal central doctrine or policy Language Between 2,500 and 3,500 languages are spoken on Earth today Many language have several dialects (pronunciation and vocabulary) English is a dominant world language along with Chinese Arabic Spanish Hindi and French Material Culture and Technology Is all the things that people make and use Material culture reflects its technology which is an integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods upon which a culture group bases its way of life. Race Race markers skin color, hair texture, face, body. No significance as biological categories Race has acquired enormous social and political significance. Altruism the willingness to sacrifice one’s own wellbeing for the sake of others. Globalization and Culture Change Multiculturalism the state of relating to, reflecting, or being adapted to several cultures Part 2 Thematic Concepts and Their Role in this Book o Population Study of the growth and decline of numbers of people on Earth, their distribution across Earth, age and sex distribution, migration patterns and what makes people move Global Patterns of Population Growth Took approx. 12 million years for humans to evolve and to reach a global population of 2 billion. Then in just 66 years the world’s population more than tripled to 7.1 billion. People are not equally distributed. People are concentrated on about 20% of the available land Rate of natural increase (RNI): the relationship in a given population between the number of people being born (BIRTH RATE) and the number dying (DEATH RATE) without regard to the effects of migration. The RNI is expressed as a percentage per year Local Variation in Population Density and Growth Total fertility rate (TFR): the average of children a women in country is likely to have during her reproductive years Age and Sex Structures Population Pyramid o A graph that depicts age and sex structures o Also reveal sex differences within populations Normal ratio worldwide is about 95 females to every 100 males Population Growth Rates and Wealth Gross National Income (GNI) per capita: the total production of goods and services of a country in a given year Demographic Transition o A period where high birth and death rates are giving way to a period of much lower birth and death rates Subsistence economy a family, usually in a rural setting, produces most of its own food, clothing, and shelter. Cash economy tends to be a urban but may be rural, skilled workers, well trained specialists, and even farm laborers are paid in money o Gender Gender how a particular social group defines the difference between the sexes Sex the biological category of male or female but does not indicate how males or females behave or identify themselves. Gender Roles The socially assigned roles for males and females Women stay at home, clean, cook, and tend for children. Women tend to marry early. One quarter of girls in developing countries are mothers before 18. Pregnancy is the leading cause of death among girls 1519. Women have less access to education than men. Less likely to have information and paid employment. Gender Issues Military and sports In many countries women are enlisting in the military, many are acquiring education at higher rates than males. o Development A shift in society as people move from extractive activities to industrial and service activities, their material standards of living rise Three types of economic activities: Primary sector (extraction): mining and agriculture Secondary Sector (industrial production): processing, manufacturing, and construction Tertiary Sector (services): sales, entertainment, and financial Quaternary: education, research, and IT Measures of Economic Development GDP per capita Geographic Patterns of Human WellBeing GNI HDI GEI o Food Modern Food Production and Vulnerability o Urbanization Why are Cities Growing? Patterns of Urban Growth o Globalization What is the Global Economy? The Debate over Globalization and Free Trade o Democratization The Expansion of Democracy International Coorperation o Water Calculating Water Use per Capita Who Owns Water? Who Gets Access to It? Water Quality o Global Climate Humans and the Environment Consequences of Global Climate Change Cartography making of maps Spatial Analysis study of how people, objects, or ideas are related to one another across space Global scale the entire world as a single area World regional scale largest divisions of the globe Local scale a small, specific area A common economic measure of development is gross domestic product (GDP) per capita