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PSYCH Week 3 Notes

by: Camryn Hohneker

PSYCH Week 3 Notes Psyc 130

Camryn Hohneker
Long Beach State

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About this Document

Hello these are the notes for Psychology Critical Thinking Week 3!
Critical Thinking
Judy Quon
Class Notes
psy, psych, Psychology, week3, cognitive psyhology, critical thinking, notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn Hohneker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 130 at California State University Long Beach taught by Judy Quon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
PsychWeek3 HalpernChapter2: Memory: TheAcquisition,RetentionandRetrievalofKnowledge BoundedRationality: theideathat whenindividualsmake decisions,theirrationalityislimitedbythe availableinformation,thetractabilityofthedecisionproblem,thelimitationsoftheirminds,andtime availabletomakethedecision Metacognition:thehigher-levelcognition;thethinkingaboutthinking;knowledgeaboutcognitionand controlof cognition Memoryas Mediatorof CognitiveProcesses  Allintelligentsystems(humans,animals)canlearnandremember  Allthinkingskillaretiedtomemory  Howinfois remembered iscomplex o Tendto exaggeratememorableevents o Tendto underestimateunmemorableevents(bad/embarrassingevents) o Eventsbetweenlearningandrecallcaninterferewiththerecallofinformation;accuracy isuncertain Memoryas Mediatorof CognitiveProcessesTimeline:  Learningretainingandrecallinginfoinvolvesapassageoftime o Informationislearnedatonepointandrecalledatalatertime(secondstoalifetime) o Eventsbetweenlearningandrecall interferewithrecallofinfo  Learning----------------------------------Memory-------------------------ActofRemembering Acquisition(Time1) RetentionInterval Retrieval(Time2) (shorttermmemory:ie.Notes) (Longtermmemory:ie.Exams) ---  Memoryis connectedwith“cues”presentfromwhenthememoryisformed(ie.Accident- location,people,sounds,etc.)  Onecue can beassociatedwithmanymemoriesduetorepeatedexperiences o thisallowsinterference  More cuesassociatedwithonememory->morelikelyforrecalltooccur  Associationscanformwithoutconsciousawareness(thishappensmostofthetime) Memoryas Mediatorof CognitiveProcesses-VarietiesofMemory:  DeclarativeMemory: recallofinformationthatcan beverballystated(easilystated)(2types): o EpisodicMemory: recallofhighlyvisual andpersonalexperiences.  Mentaldiary o SemanticMemory:recallofobjectiveand generalknowledgeinformation.  Mentaldictionaryorencyclopedia.  laws,history,mathematics,etc.NOTpersonalexperiencesoremotions.It’s factual  Procedural memory: recallofmotorprocessesand/ormentalprocesses. o Mostlymotor processesandit’sdifficulttoverballydescribe o gymnastics,readingmap,etc.Musclememory.  Automaticmemory: Effortlessrecallofstoredinformation duetorepetition o (ex.Habits,routines)  Vs.Effortfulmemory: intentionalrecallofmentallystoredinformation.(ex.Learningnew information) Acquisition:7Strategiesthat Promote Learning  1. Pay Attention:consciousprocessing ofinformation o Haveto pay attentiontoacquireinformation o Limitedabilitytoprocessinformation;subset o Individualdifferencesinfluencefocus(interests,needs,etc.) o To improvememory-payattentiontopayingattention o Evidence ofpayingattention-readwordsoutloud,traceletters/object/personwith object,takenotes,etc.  2. Monitormeaning:track comprehensionofinformation. o Improvesmemory.Evidenceissummaryorexplanationofinformation.  3. Distribute Learning:studyacross a longertimespanwithmoresessions and lessinformation persession.  4. Getorganized(bycategories):individualfactorsaregroupedtogetherbyacommonprinciple (ex.Colors,animals)  5. Retrieval Cuesforrecall(differentfromthe text): o RetrievalCue:environmentalfactor associatewith specificmemories.Seeingthecue bringsthememoryintoconsciousawareness.  (ie.Perfume,song,sunset,etc.) o Multiplecues:retrievalcuesassociatedwithonememory  6. Overlearn: repeatedlyreviewinformationforfasterrecall and feworno errors o (ex.Playingpiano,recitingABCs,multiplicationtables,etc.)  7. NoncognitiveFactors: Needtoaddresssinceallinterferewithabilitytopayattention o 1. Physicalneeds(hunger,sleep,water) o 2. Drugs o 3. Lack oftime(focusontimelimitsratherthanthetarget/goalinformation) -- Retention  Durationofdifferenttypesofmemory o 1. SensoryMemory:occurs withinthesenses  allobjectsinvisual/audiofieldareavailableIFtheycanbeattendedtoquickly  Visual¼to½ second  Audio 4seconds o 2. Short termmemory(STM)/workingmemory:memoriesstoredupto1 minute; limitedcapacity  Chunking:combinesseveralrelateditemsintoonecode:  can remember“more”info


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