Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues
Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Tissue Tissues: two or more cells grouped together to perform a basic task. The study of tissues is: Histology 1. Epithelial Tissue a. is broken down into two types i. Covering and Lining 1. All of the body’s surfaces are exposed to epithelial tissue a. Outer layer of skin, lining of digestive tract, lining of reproductive tract, lining or cardiovascular, etc. ii. Glandular: makes up glands b. Functions of covering and lining (Structure and Function varies throughout the body) i. Establishes boundaries 1. Apical and basal surfaces ii. Protection: first line of defense of keeping pathogens out of the body. iii. Absorption: regulates what enters the body. iv. Filtration: we filter things based on size. (based on pressure) v. Excretion vi. Secretion vii. Sensory reception c. Avascular: does not have blood supply. d. Usually on top of connective tissues e. The Basement Membrane is where the stratified squamous attaches to the dense irregular connective tissue. i. Basal lamina: non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins 1. Glycoproteins: proteins that have a carbohydrate attached to it. Anchoring portions of the basement membrane. 2. Functions as a selective filter. ii. Reticular Lamina: under the basal lamina: extracellular network of collagen fibers that are held by the glycoproteins. Classified by layers of Tissues f. Simple Epithelium: one layer of cells and found in areas of little wear and tear. Involved with absorption and filtration. g. Stratified Epithelium: two or more layers. Found in high abrasion areas. h. Pseudo-stratified: one cell layer thick, but it looks like more. Found in areas of limited movement like the respiratory tract. Classified by shapes i. Squamous: irregular shaped j. Cuboidal: square shaped k. Columnar: oval shaped l. Transitional: dome cells (lines the urinary bladder) 1. Glandular Epithelium a. Composed of glands i. Cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secrete substances (mostly water based) into ducts, onto surfaces or into the blood. b. Requires energy to produce its secretory products. c. Types of Glands i. Exocrine: goblet cells release whatever is not needed (is a mucous gland that releases mucus. Contains mucin. They line the intestines and respiratory tract. ) 1. Secretes where it is going to work ii. Endocrine Gland: no ducts. There is no direct secretion into the blood. Produce hormones 1. Secretes one place and works somewhere else. d. Structural Classifications: i. Unicellular: one layer of cells. ii. Multicellular: more than one cell. Can be further classified by how the glands branch. e. Functional Classification i. Merocrine Gland: secretory product is excreted through exocytosis. The cells stay intact. Products are put in vesicles and released. ii. Holocrine: cell produces the product and stores it. The cell is then slumped off and the cell will eventually explode and release products. Hair follicles. 2. Connective Tissue a. All derived from the same embryonic tissue b. All poses the same structural elements c. Four types i. Connective tissue proper ii. Cartilage iii. Bone iv. Blood d. i. Ground Substance 1. Contains Proteoglycans. ii. Fibers 1. Provide support (elastic, collagen, or reticular fibers) iii. Cells 1. Osteocytes, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, leukocytes. 3. Muscle Tissue a. Cells modified for contraction b. Provide movement and/or heat c. All contain i. Sarcolemma: plasma membrane of a muscle cell. ii. Sarcoplasm: cytoplasm of a muscle cell d. Muscle Types i. Skeletal 1. Striations 2. Fibers run parallel to another 3. Multinucleated (multiple nuclei per cell). 4. Nuclei are pushed towards the edges 5. Voluntary muscle (conscious determined when this contracts) ii. Cardiac 1. Striations 2. Intercalated discs: communicating junction between adjacent cells. 3. Involuntary muscle iii. Smooth 1. No striations 2. One nucleus per cell 3. Involuntary 4. Lines walls of hollow organs e. Classification Criteria i. Striations ii. Nervous control iii. Number of nuclei. 4. Nervous Tissue a. Neurons: make the neural (electrical connections) pathways in body. b. Neuroglia
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