Chapter 3.3 and 3.5 Notes
Chapter 3.3 and 3.5 Notes PSYC 1101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
9/7/2016 3.3 Hearing What do we hear? Sound waves: vibrations of air o Just like we don’t see all the possible wavelengths of light out there, we also don’t hear all the frequencies of possible sound waves. o We hear between 2020,000 Hz (cycles per second) Features of sound 1. Pitch (low, high, medium tone) o Corresponds to frequency o Long wavelength, low frequency o Short wavelength, high frequency 2. Loudness (how loud is it?) o Corresponds to amplitude 3. Timbre (what is the quality of the sound?) o Corresponds to the purity of the wavelengths (how many different frequencies are there? Similar to light) Light Sound Wavelength Hue (color) Pitch Amplitude Brightness Loudness Purity Saturation Timbre We measure in decibels (dB). o Ex: Absolute threshold (0), Whispering (20dB), Rainfall (50dB), Normal conversation (60dB), Hair dryer (70dB) o Ex: Average city traffic (80dB), Motorcycle that is 25 feet away (88dB), MP3 Player at max volume (105dB), Snowmobile (105dB) o Ex: Jet engine (140dB) o Continual exposure may cause damage (>80dB) o Hearing becomes painful (> 125dB) Ear Transforming Sound Waves into the Language of the Brain Ears transduce the physical motion of sound waves into the electrical and chemical signals of the nervous system. 1. Pinna (what you see on the outside) helps funnel sound into the inner ear. Sound waves come into the ear and through the auditory canal. 2. The eardrum pulls across and vibrates. Then, bones in the ear move. Hammer, anvil, and stirrup are the three smallest bones in your ear. 3. Stirrup hits onto the cochlea and fluid inside the cochlea (snail shaped structure) move. If you look inside it, there is a membrane inside that has hair cells. 4. Hair cells move and bend like grass in a marsh. Hair cells are stimulated and trigger action potentials in the auditory nerve. 5. The auditory nerve moves the signals to the auditory cortex in the brain, where information is transmitted and sounds are given meaning. o Ear infection sometimes your balance is off because the fluid inside your ear gets infected. When you move, the fluid doesn’t. o Motion sickness the fluid inside your semicircular canal is moving but your eye is not sensing the movement, causing you to feel ill. Theories of Pitch Pitch: Corresponds to frequency of sound waves o Higher frequencies higher pitches o Lower frequencies lower pitches Place theory: Pitch is determined by location of stimulation on basilar membrane o Perceive sounds from 4,00020,000 Hz o What sound you hear gets determined by which and where on the membrane each hair cell gets stimulated o Each area in the membrane corresponds to a different pitch o Near oval window high pitch o Opposite end low pitch Frequency theory: Pitch is related to rate of vibration o Perceive sounds from 20400 Hz o Faster= higher pitch Volley principle: frequencies between 400 Hz and 4,000 Hz cause hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern o Cells take turns firing o Our nerves can’t fire that fast (20,000 cycles per sec) so groups of neurons need to take turns (Similar to refractory period) Cochlear Implant 1. In case of sound waves striking the ear, they pass through the canal to the eardrum. From there, the sound waves are mechanically transmitted to the inner ear and amplified. 2. In the inner ear, you can find the “cochlear,” which consists of 3 different canals. The middle canal is the organ of hearing and consists of sensitive hair cells. The hair cells can be stimulated electrically, and forward the signal to the nerves and then on to the brain. 3. In most cases of deafness, the hearing nerve still remains functional, but the hair cells have been damaged or even lost. 4. In a cochlear implant system, sound enters a microphone and travels to an external minicomputer called a “sound processor,” which gets converted into digital information that is sent over a transmitter antenna to the surgically implanted part of the system. 5. The implant will turn the sound information into electrical signals that travel down to an electrode array inserted into the tiny inner ear, or cochlea. 6. The electrodes directly stimulate the auditory nerve, sending sound information to the brain. Bypassing the damaged inner ear, the cochlear implant provides an entirely new mechanism for hearing. 9/9/2016 3.5 Perception Perception: Recognizing, organizing, and interpreting information from senses o Taking information that comes in and assigning some sort of meaning to it o Not an exact copy of “the world” o You perceive the world in a way that is meaningful to you Perceptual set: Each person perceives things in a slightly/erratically different way based on o Past experiences o Expectations Perception and Constancies Constancies: things change in our visual field but we perceive them as constant (regardless of change in lighting, angle, and/or distance) The tendency to perceive objects in our environment as stable in terms of size, shape, and color: o Size constancy: an object is perceived as maintaining its size, regardless of the image projected on the retina We learn through experience about the size of everyday objects. This is how we perceive them accordingly whether they are far away or close. Ex: You start out standing right here in front of me and you walk to the back of the room. The size that I view you as stays constant even if you go farther away. o Shape constancy: an object is perceived as maintaining its shape, regardless of the image projected on the retina Ex: Think of a door. When you first see a door and it’s closed, it looks like a rectangle. When the door opens, it’s actually not a rectangle (it’s changing view and space), but you still perceive it as having a rectangular shape. o Color constancy: an object is perceived as maintaining its color, even when sensory data arriving at our photoreceptors change This allows us to see the world in stable colors. Ex: A shirt is bright blue outside in bright sunlight or inside a house. One’s understanding of the shirt as blue is not altered even though the light waves bouncing off of the shirt has changed. Perceiving Size: Taking Distance into Account The perception of distance is based on experience. Throughout life, we have learned that the more muscular tension, the closer an object. o Try this: Keep your eyes open. Hold out your hand in front of you at arm’s length, pointing your finger up to the ceiling. o Slowly bring your finger closer and closer to your nose. You can feel tension and strain in your eye muscles because your brain uses convergence to determine distance. Gestalt Principles Gestalt principle: Things that we do in order to determine what things are part of the same object vs different objects o “Whole” or “form” in German o This is not something we know from birth How do we group stimuli into an object? o Proximity: Objects close to each other are perceived as a group o Similarity: Objects similar in shape or color are perceived as a group; typically used to help illustrate graphs o Connectedness: Objects that are connected are perceived as a group o Continuity: Parts tend to be perceived as members of a group if they head in the same direction o Closure: Gaps tend to be filled in if something isn’t complete o Common fate: Visual objects that move together in the same speed and/or direction can be viewed as a single unit. Examples: A flock of birds or a marching band Look at the illustration (Infographic 3.4) below to get a better sense of Gestalt principles. Depth Perception Depth perception: ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and judge distances Cues for perceiving depth: 1. Monocular cues: use of just one eye to judge depth and distance o Linear Perspective: Two lines are parallel and converge at a point on the horizon. We know that the point of convergence appears farther away than where the two lines are parallel o Relative Size: Two objects are similar in actual size. One is farther away and appears to be smaller. The larger object is interpreted as being closer than the smaller object o Texture Gradient: Textures are more apparent for closer objects b/c it is easier to see their texture when they are closer Atmospheric Perspective: Farther away hazier, not as crisp. Closer crisper w/o that atmospheric haze o Interposition: If one object is blocking another object, we perceive it as being in front of it. The blocked object appears more distant. 2. Binocular cues: use of both eyes, which alert you to depth and distance based on the difference that your two eyes are making o Convergence: Based on brain’s interpretation of the tension in the muscles of the eyes The angle of rotation is closer if the object is closer The angle of rotation is farther away if the object is far o Retinal disparity: Difference between the images seen by the right and left eyes to determine the distance of objects Because your eyes are separated from each other, the image that falls on your retina falls in a slightly different spot in your eyes Greater the difference = closer the object More similar the 2 images = farther the object
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