New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

American Crisis in Schools

by: meghan Hamilton

American Crisis in Schools EDL 204

meghan Hamilton
GPA 3.5
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Sociocultural studies in Education

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Sociocultural studies in Education notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

covers readings and text critiques
Sociocultural studies in Education
Dr. Kate
Class Notes




Popular in Sociocultural studies in Education

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDL 204 at Miami University taught by Dr. Kate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Sociocultural studies in Education in Education and Teacher Studies at Miami University.


Reviews for American Crisis in Schools


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/15/16
Text Critique ● A text: any representation produced and engaged by people in which the  interactive process between people and texts creates meaning ○ 3 kinds of text: word, image and social ■ Word texts: books, newspapers and poems ■ Image texts: anything represented through  images: drawings ■ Social texts: representations found in live  engagement of humans in social interaction with one another How to Read Texts ● To read any text means to create meanings out of the representations in  the text ● There is no true meaning for any text ● We must say “This is what I believe the author intended…” ● Analytical reading: identifies the elements of the texts ● Interpretive reading: puts text in a larger context ● Normative reading: asks reader to reflect on how their own ethical and  political values influence how they read the text Text Analysis ● Argument analysis ○ Argument refers to use of reason and logic to make a claim ○ Its purpose is to get at the truth ○ Two aspects to an argument ■ The claim(a claim without evidence is an  assertation) ● A claim is what the author  attempts to convince us to accept ● Sometimes the claim may be  implicit or explicit ● If a claim is present without  premises, it’s not an argument ■ The premises ● Empirical premises: appeal to  facts about the world obtained through observing or  measuring the world ○ Many of these  claims are found in science ● Conceptual premises: evidence  based on concepts and definitions and are not dependent on facts ○ Reveal different  ways words or concepts are understood 3 necessary conditions for activities to be described as teaching 1. They must be conducted with intention of bringing about learning 2. They must indicate or exhibit what is to be learned 3. They must do this in a way which is intelligible to and within the capacities  of the learners American culture is skeptical of conceptual arguments, highly biased towards empirical  arguments Warrants and Normative Arguments ● Warrants: rule or principle that connects the rest of the premises to the  claim ● Normative arguments use ethical or political principle or rule as a warrant Cultural politics: refer to the struggle for power through seeking recognition and  legitimacy for one’s culture or refusing to recognize as legitimate other cultures Rhetorical analysis ● Rhetoric: persuasion. Not really based in facts or reason.  ● Cultural narratives: deeper foundational, deep seed underlying story line. Organizes the surface narrative ○ Underlying the entire set of beliefs ○ Sometimes narratives causes writers to focus more on the  story than developing an argument ● Surface narrative: easy to recognize Tropes: rhetorical device such as metaphors, similes, irony and etc...topes alter a word  from its common meaning to some other meaning Ex: life is like a box of chocolates Ideographs: idea that evokes strong emotion in a large number of people and that  writers and speakers use to bolster their position Ex:  Text interpretation: specific and conscious act of bringing outside contexts to the text in  order to deepen and broaden our understanding of it American Schools In Crisis ● Many nations have much higher test scores than the U.S. ● Critics have been complaining about “lazy, incompetent teachers” for the  past 60 years ● Just because we have lower test scores doesn’t mean the U.S. is going to  disappear, like the race to put Sputnik in orbit, they beat us but we are here and  the Soviet Union is gone ● Those tests don’t allow students to create, innovate, imagine or think  outside the box ● Teachers have one of the most difficult jobs because we must be able to  communicate with students from many different backgrounds ● Single­parent homes have become the norm, popular culture has changed as well ● Today everyone must graduate and get a diploma ● Congress made mandate for special education; they were suppose to pay  40% of the cost but never have ● No Child Left Behind: Congress imposed standardized testing as part of  school reform ○ Thought schools would try harder to see rapid gains in test  scores ○ This law was passed instead of the federal government  sending more funding to schools ○ If schools failed to make progress over 5 years it would be  closed ● Reaching 100% proficiency is impossible but that is what NCLB wants to  have happen ○ You have to produce better results or you get fired ● Race To the Top: Obama imposed this law. Assumes that higher test  scores means better education. This program blames teachers for the lack of  better student results ● Charter schools don’t produce better results than public schools ○ Charter schools avoid students who are difficult or costly to  educate ● Standardized testing penalizes creativity and rewards students for picking  the right answer on a multiple choice exam ● Poverty causes low achievement ○ Most important educators in a child’s life are his/her family ● Teachers can earn due process right 3+ years after working in a school  district ● Some states have lowered their requirements for teaching ● The federal government increases the stakes placed on standardized  testing ● If educations moves to privatization, schools will become for­profit industry ● The achievement gap begins before the first day of school ○ Pregnant women need good paternal care ○ The child needs nutritious foods and exercise ○ They need high quality education before even arriving at  kindergarten


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.