9/13/16 week of notes
9/13/16 week of notes Hist 1720
Popular in The West and the World 1
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1720 at Clemson University taught by Professor Caroline Dunn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see The West and the World 1 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
History 1720 Professor Dunn: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --8/23/2016 The Mesopotamians Song by They Might be Giants o Might help with memorizing Water and Soil, Stone and Metal: The first civilizations o Refer to reading from text Earliest Cities: o Why did important cities (areas of civilization) arise where they did (in major river valleys)? Accident of nature Where areas were fertile (Rivers, etc.) Flooding that would take place in the Nile that allowed crops to grow o Humans gained control of the water Irrigation techniques to control the flow of water ** very key in the emergence of early societies This provides Stability o What do historians mean when they speak of “civilization” A “civilized society” has advanced beyond a basic search for sustenance Gone beyond just hunter gatherer Has different characteristics Society=roots of people who may share values but are not all the same o People develop different occupations= Specialization Artisans: o People who make things (necessary things) not like our modern day artists May seem creative to us but pretty much everything has a purpose for use Merchants: o People who are bartering these objects Slaves o Not an equal society Kings: Hierarchy, Priests o Again supports unequal society Gender division: Patriarchy o Patrilinear: inheritance through men in the family o Women had some rights (i.e. the right to divorce) o What caused the emergence of social stratification (kings and priests as the ruling class, different social classes in society)? Protection Men ruled not only through strength but through strategy Kingship becomes hereditary The suggestion that the gods are looking upon not only the kings but the whole family favorably if they are in fact successful o We then see dynasties o In Mesopotamia and Egypt we see these leaders being linked to the gods, and also becoming god-like The people see them as having ancestors that are gods Religious deities Ex. The Pharaoh is seen as a living god o The value of Theocracy Theo=god Ocracy=ruler A society of ruling classes that are working together (priest and kings, therefore the ruling family promotes the religion and the priest promotes the ruling family) Kings protect the people from other nations, the priests protect people from the gods and goddesses (sacrifices, etc.) Gods are very related to nature Refer to the importance of the sun Ziggurats: Both a temple and offering place o People would bring their excess food and the rulers would redistribute o Sargon The king who seems to have the first idea of conquering other nations and then sticking with that Not just taking other lands goods, but also claiming their land and establishing that land as territory as well He is an exception to the lack of unity in Mesopotamia as a whole Mesopotamia has many different regions with different languages and cultures o Egypt as a contrast is unified: shared culture and language, etc. for the most part for hundreds of years Gives their culture strength through unity o Pharaoh Menes: The unification of Egypt is most linked to this Pharaoh even though he is not solely responsible for the unification of this region The first ruler that we actually believe existed is Narmer What is the purpose of organized religion? o Polytheistic: believes in multiple gods and goddesses o Egyptian afterlife: Understanding the purpose of life and what happens after or beyond o The question of morality: Religion’s hold on how people should live their lives o Pyramids: temples with tombs attached, religious structures to help kings move on to the afterlife Sphinx: half lion / half human o Cuneiform: The earliest known system of writing Receipts: earliest need for writing, a form of recorded payment Priests record the people that contribute food o Hieroglyphs: Financial transactions Expands into religious information Then into written law History vs. Prehistory o Writing doesn’t suddenly mean we have a whole lot more info about society o Other types of non-written evidence remains valuable Architecture, art, etc. o Written sources are not perfect Might not be complete Biased Might not be telling us the truth Example: modern people who have a death record that aren’t actually dead
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