Thursday 09/15/16 Lecture Notes
Thursday 09/15/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
PSYCH 1301 Sept 15, 2016 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Exams Returned • Exam 1 Answers Reviewed • Extra credit quiz on Tuesday Class Notes: • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o Sympathetic NS “Arouses” (flight-or-flight) § This is the reason you should buy a car while wearing sunglasses – your pupils dilate when you are aroused (when you like the car) o Parasympathetic NS “Calms” (rest and digest) • The Endocrine System o The Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands • Hormones o Hormones are chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and many other tissues § For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and feelings of excitement during emergency situations • Pituitary Gland o Is called the “master gland.” The anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance o It secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands • Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands o Regulate metabolic and calcium rate o Thyroid gland: affects metabolism, among other things o Parathyroid: help regulate the level of calcium in the blood • Adrenal Glands o Adrenal glands consist of the adrenal medulla and the cortex. The medulla secretes hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) during stressful and emotional situations, while the adrenal cortex regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism § Adrenal Glands: inner part helps trigger the “fight-or-flight” response § Pancreas: regulates the level of sugar in the blood • Gonads o Sex glands are located in different places in men and women. They regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults § E.g. testes and ovaries PSYCH 1301 Sept 15, 2016 Lecture Notes • The Human Brain o Weighs roughly 2% of body’s weight o Uses 20% of body’s energy o Consists of many structures acting as an integrated system o Does not lend itself to simplistic explanations § E.g. phrenology • The Brain o What we’ll discuss: § The life-sustaining inner parts of the brain: the brainstem and limbic system § The outer, wrinkled “bark”: the cortex § Left, right, and split brains • No individual is particularly right or left brained o Questions about parts of the brain: § Do you thing that the brain is the sum of its parts, or is the brain actually about the way they are connected? § What do you think might happen if a particular area of the brain was damaged or not working well? o The overall organization of the Brain § Major sections of the brain • Brain stem o Hindbrain o Midbrain • Forebrain • The Brainstem: Hindbrain o The hindbrain connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain § Contralateral control • For many functions such as sensory processing and motor control, the major pathways from the left side of body cross over to the right side of the brain and vice versa § Structures of the hindbrain • Medulla • Pons • Cerebellum • Reticular formation (reticular activating system) • The Brainstem: Midbrain o The midbrain is an important relay station that contains centers involved in the processing of auditory and visual sensory information. § Substantia nigra • Dark-pigmented midbrain area that involves motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons • Part of a larger neural pathway that helps prepare other brain regions to initiate organized movements or actions PSYCH 1301 Sept 15, 2016 Lecture Notes • The Forebrain o Frontal lobe § Motor cortex – sends signals to muscles § Prefrontal cortex – executive functions • Injury: o Broca’s area & aphasia o Phineas Gage & personality change • The Cerebral Cortex o Each cerebral hemisphere has four regions associated with distinct functions § Temporal (primary auditory cortex) § Occipital (primary visual cortex) § Parietal (Somatosensory cortex) § Frontal (Primary motor context)
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