Individual Differences Psychology Week 4
Individual Differences Psychology Week 4 PSY 345
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cimmi Alvarez on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 345 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Elliot Tucker-Drob in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Individual Differences in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Week 4 Intelligence and Personality- Historical and Contemporary Taxonomies Taxonomies- organize how we talk about constructs, and how we study them. Pre History of Intelligence Plato- philosopher, talked about intelligence Plato’s dialogue Theaetetus Metaphor mind is like a block of wax People differ in the type of wax they have Clear- good intellect; muddy-defects in intellect The Darwinian Revolution Natural selection is premised on the notion of individual variation Evolution- variability in all characteristics. Darwin focused on physiological characteristics People pass on the genetic material that gives rise to these traits Most adapted pass on their gene more efficiently than the less adapted He predicts psychology will be about variation in mental powers and capacity Sir Francis Galton Father of behavioral genetics- how genes influence intergenerational influence of genes on psychology Wrote Hereditary Genius- what causes the “natural ability” Qualifications of intellect and disposition which lead to reputation Searched through handbooks of eminence found families of reputation tended to produce eminent offspring. Assumed people were successful because of their psychological abilities passed down through families. Identical twins behave more similarly than fraternal twins- it must be because of their genes. He concluded that intelligence wa s genetically influenced Eugenics- the way farmers breed animals for certain things. This could be applied to humans. Use natural selection to “make society better”. Many ethical issues based on this Founder of psychometrics and individual differences psychology Conceptualized IQ as falling along a normal distribution The First Psychometric Laboratory Community sample- put papers out and take volunteers for your sample. Charged his participants to be part of the study. Results Imagery and perceptual tests were not able to predict educational achievement and other criteria Alfred Binet Early 1900s France France starts teaching everyone and there are kids entering school who did not have the prep of previous students for school. - never had early childhood education. Some caught up others did not always Government commissioned Binet and Simon to devise a test that would identify children who were “unable to profit from schools” 2 1905 new scale- different tests required different abilities, that could develop unequally in scores Intelligence could be determined by whether they could answer more or few questions than average students of the same age. Had different tests for different age groups Intelligence was reported at mental age: the at which the average score is equal to the score of the individual IQ= Mental age/ chronological age X 100 Do not use IQ in this way anymore Binet’s IQ not used this way anymore because- Once people get old their brains kind of go backward. Now we calculate IQ by: WAIS- calls it IQ but doesn’t measure it that way. Now we calculate it using a Z score. Charles Spearman Father of factor analysis Curious to weather intelligence was really general and unitary Do well on one type of tests should do well on other types of tests. Invented Factor Analysis to determine if correlations between test cold be correlated with ability. Positive manifold Matriz manifold – “positive manifold” Spearman’s Theory General intelligence, g, is a mental energy Specific abilities are the individual machines of the factory. Single Factor vs. Multiple Factors Single factor does not account for specific patters observed among many different. 3 Louis L Thurstone Argued ability in on factor doesn’t have to do with others culture.. His factors Verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, memory, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, spatial visualization Gf-Gc Theory The fluid and crystallized theory of intelligence. By Cattell Fluid intelligence- ability that operates whatever sheer perception of complex relations is involved Crystallized Intelligence- availability of diverse skills and knowledge that are acquired in a culture Declarative- knows medicine to give patient Procedural- know how to cut someone open-knows the procedure The acquisition of crystallized intelligence, learning, results from people investing their fluid abilities. Why Gf and Gc are correlated, because people with higher Gf learn more. Fluid intelligence is when you learn it and crystalized intelligence ingrains it. Invest fluid intelligence for later to develop crystalized The “Three Stratum” Hierarchical Factor Model The group factors are actually correlated because there is a ge neral ability on the top There are fluid and crystalized tests and groups of processing. Last Weeks Exercise The test he showed last week on the survey were the tests that make up the hierarchical factor model Gardener: Independent Multiple Intelligences 4 Data doesn’t totally correspond Says everyone has abilities and they are independent if they are good at one thing they may not be good at something else. Each ability is not correlated with another He didn’t do this through individual psychology instead tested specific groups- like those who have brain damage When tested individual psychology way then the things are correlated. Criticisms Scarr- its all semantics. Just because he calls personality characteristics intelligence doesn’t help to understand them any better 5
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