physics of everyday life
physics of everyday life PHYS 0847 - 003
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PHYS 0847 - 003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori Busa on Thursday September 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 0847 - 003 at Temple University taught by Michael Opferman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see HOW THINGS WORK: THE PHYSICS OF EVERYDAY LIFE in Science at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/15/16
Physics of Everyday Life Chapter 1 Energy 1a. Conservation of energy Energy is anything that can be turned into heat Kinetic energy- motion Electrical energy- power lines Chemical energy- gas, oil Conservation means that something cannot be created or destroyed. Amount stays the same, however, it can move and change forms. Energy is not created however we tap into existing sources of energy Example: (the flow of energy) Man Jumps Off a Roof 1. Kinetic energy comes from the gravitational potential energy he had on top of the building. Loses gravitational energy and gains kinetic energy. 2. Gravitational energy comes from the chemical energy stored in the fat he burned when he climbed the stairs, burned fat by burning calories 3. Chemical energy stored comes from food he ate salad. Fat is the body’s way of storing energy for later use 4. Chemical energy from salad from plant from light energy to chemical energy 5. Light energy came from the sun, nuclear fusion. From the atomic energy Energy always comes from somewhere and goes somewhere= conservation energy 1b. Sources of energy Energy is stored in per gram of mass (calories) EX: bullet, car battery, TNT, choc chip cookie, coal, gas asteroid, uranium Gas vs electric cars • On the other hand, Gasoline contains much more Energy than (traditional) car batteries, so the Electric Car must either have tons of batteries or sacrifice range This is the equivalent of having a very small gas tank Alternative cars: I. Hybrid Cars- A small gasoline engine provides energy to charge a battery, which runs an electric motor. II. Hydrogen cars- taking water apart and using the hydrogen gas as energy, hydrogen has more energy per gram than gasoline. Only waste produced is water. Hydrogen takes up a lot of space, difficult to store and transport. Highly flammable III. Natural gas cars- powered with natural gas found in Honda Civic CX. Produces greenhouse gases. Difficult to transport. 1c: Power Physics of Everyday Life Power is the rate at which energy is released If energy is released very quickly, it gives rise to more dramatic effects. Common units Watts (W), kilowatts (kW), horsepower (hp) Power plants 1. Heat from energy source used to boil water 2. Steam turns turbine 3. Turbine powers electric generator 4. Electricity is transmitted to power lines Main advantage of electric energy is that it is easily transported over thousands of miles, using metal wires. Solar power 1. Solar panels convert the suns energy into electricity 2. A control device changes this electricity enabling it to power electrical items 3. The electricity then passes through a breaker box to outlets in building 4. Items such as fridge and lamp can plug in outlet for power Typical solar panels are only 15% efficient electricity being used Wind power 1. Wind occurs when solar energy heats up different parts of earth unevenly 2. Wind is used to turn the turbine directly 3. Wind power is clean, but dangerous to birds and generates noise Human power 1. A normal person can generate 1/7 of a horsepower during vigorous exercise 2. That’s about enough to run a TV or computer 3. 75% of energy becomes heat waste, this is why you become hot and sweaty during exercise Kinetic power 1. Kinetic energy increases with mass and velocity 2. Explosions occurs when energy is suddenly converted into heat in a confined space and under enormous pressure 3. Example of kinetic energy = asteroid SUMMARY Energy has many different forms, but the total amount of it does not change. This is called Conservation of Energy. Power is the rate at which Energy is released. Gasoline has a high amount of Energy per gram, much higher than batteries. This is why electric cars have struggled to compete. Efficiency is the percentage of the Energy released that is actually converted into the form we want. Physics of Everyday Life Hybrid cars use a small gasoline engine to charge a battery. They are much more efficient than traditional gasoline engines. Fuel cells are like batteries that are refueled instead of recharged. Hydrogen Fuel Cells may be a good way to transport Energy, but they are not really an Energy source since we can’t mine Hydrogen. An Explosion occurs when stored energy is suddenly converted to heat in a confined space, causing the material to expand rapidly. Power plants usually use Energy to boil water, whose steam turns a turbine to generate Electrical Energy. Solar Energy is abundant, but solar cells are not very efficient at harvesting it. Humans get energy from food or use energy stored in fat. Weight loss occurs when the energy from food intake is less than the energy we use. Wind occurs due to uneven heating of the earth surface. Wind energy can be harvested using turbines. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Fast moving objects have a lot of energy. Ex: asteroid that killed the dinosaurs.
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